Оқыту әдістемелік кешені «Speech communication»


Read extract 1 and say whether Laeey Farrell would enjoy living in the suburbs



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Read extract 1 and say whether Laeey Farrell would enjoy living in the suburbs.

Give your arguments (the questions below may help you) Extract 1

Fresh out of college, Lacey Farrell had found a small apartment on East End Avenue and a job at Parker and Parker Realtors. Now. eight years later, she was one of their top agents. Her windows faced Madison Avenue. She rev­eled in the sight of the constant traffic, the hordes of tourists, the well-heeled Madison Avenue types drifting in and out of the designer boutiques.

"Some of us are born New Yorkers," she would explain to the sometimes apprehensive wives of executives being transferred to Manhattan. "Others come here reluctantly, and before they know it, they discover that for all its problems, it's still the best place in the world to live."

Then if questioned, she would explain: 'i was raised in Manhattan, and ex­cept for being away at college. I've always lived here. It's my home, my town."

Her father, Jack Farrell, had felt that way about the city. From the time she was little, they had explored New York City together. "We're pals. Lace." he would say. "You're like me, a city slicker'. Now your mother, God love her, yearns to join the flight to the suburbs. It's to her credit that she sticks it out here, knowing I'd wither on the vine there."


  1. What did Lacey like about the view from her office window?

  2. Where did she grow up?

  3. Were Lacey and her father alike? Why wouldn't Jack Farrell move to the suburbs?



Theme 9. It’s small world. Challenges and breakthroughs.
Курстың мақсаты ; студенттерді ауызша сөйлеу қабілетін дамыту. студенттерге алған білімдерін жүзінде қолдану үшін кәсіби мен дағдыларға төселдіруге көмектесу.

READING 1



Pre-reading questions:

1. Which, in your opinion, could be the greater hazard of the 21st century:
S proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons

^ high-tech terrorism S extreme climate change ■S violent ethnic explosions

S economic and political aftershocks of globalisation •/ the ageing of the developed world's population Explain your reasoning.

2. What do the following words mean:

systems thinking ecoliteracy ecodesign

3. Do you think ecoliteracy should be taught at school?

Skim the text to find out what the author means by "the web of life".

The Web of Life

As the century draws to a close, we are facing a whole series of global problems which are harming the biosphere and human life in alarming ways that may soon become irreversible. Concern with the environment is no longer one of many "single issues." It is the context of everything else - of our lives, our businesses, our politics. The great challenge of our time is to build and nur­ture sustainable communities - social, cultural and physical environments in which we can satisfy our needs and aspirations without diminishing the chances of future generations.

What is sustained in a sustainable community is not economic growth or development, but the entire web of life on which our long-term survival de­pends. In other words, a sustainable community is designed in such a way that ils ways of life, businesses, economy, physical structures and technologies do not interfere with nature's inherent ability to sustain life.
The first step in this endeavor, naturally, must be to become "ecologically literate", i.e., to understand the principles of organization that ecosystems have developed to sustain the web of life, in the new century, ecological literacy will be a critical skill for politicians, business leaders and professionals in all spheres. More than that, it will be critical for the survival of humanity as a whole, and therefore will be the most important component of education at all levels - from schools to colleges and universities and the continuing education and training of professionals.

Systems Thinking

When you ask yourself how ecosystems work, and when you study them in detail, you will find out very soon that their basic principles of organization are the principles of organization of all living systems.

So the most appropriate theoretical framework for ecology is the theory of living systems. This theory is only now fully emerging, but it has its roots in several scientific fields that were developed during the first half of the 20th century - organismic biology. Gestalt psychology, ecology, general systems theory and cybernetics.

Systems theory entails a new way of seeing the world and a new way of thinking, known as "systems thinking," or "systemic thinking." It means think­ing in terms of context, relationships, patterns and processes.

Systems thinking was raised to a new level during the past 20 years with the development of a new science of complexity, including a whole new mathe­matical language and a new set of concepts to describe the complexity of living systems. So systems thinking is now at the very forefront of science. But al­though this intellectual tradition is almost 100 years old, it has still not taken hold in the mainstream culture of Western, developed countries.

On investigating why people in the West find systems thinking so difficult, I have come to the conclusion that there are two main reasons. One is that liv­ing systems are nonlinear — they are networks - while our whole scientific tra­dition is based on linear thinking: linear chains of cause and effect; when you do something that works, more of the same will work even better; a healthy economy is one that shows strong, indefinite growth; and so on.

Ecological thinking, or systems thinking, is completely different. Ecosys­tems, like all living systems, are highly nonlinear. They don't maximize their variables but optimize them. When something is good, then more of the same will not necessarily be better, because things go in cycles, not along straight lines. The point is not to be efficient, but to be sustainable; it's not quantity that counts, but quality.

The second reason why Western culture finds systems thinking difficult is that we live in a materialist culture - both in terms o/its values and its fundamental worldview. Most biologists today would tell you that in order to really understand living organisms, you have to understand their molecules.

However, systems theory tells us that the essence of life does not lie in the molecules, but in the patterns and processes in which these molecules are in­volved. The basic patterns of life are configurations of relationships between biological processes, and these relationships and processes are nonmaterial. They involve matter, of course, but a relationship is something nonmaterial; a process is something nonmaterial. You can't take a photograph of the web of life, because it is a network of functional, nonmaterial relationships.

This is the crux, of the matter. The essence of ecology and of systems think­ing is the understanding of nonlinear, nonmaterial entities ■- something that mainstream Western culture finds it very hard to deal with.

Ecoliteracy and Ecodesign

When systems thinking is applied to the stud)' of the earth household - which is the literal meaning of "ecology" - we discover that the principles of organiza­tion of ecosystems are the basic patterns of life. For example, we observe:



  • that an ecosystem generates no waste, the waste of one species being the food of another;

  • that matter cycles continually through the web of life;

- that the energy driving these ecological cycles Hows from the sun;
-that diversity increases resilience;

- that life, from its beginning more than three billion years ago. did not take


over
the planet by combat, but by cooperation and partnership.

The main task in the new century will be to apply our ecological knowledge and systemic thinking to the fundamental redesign of our technologies and so­cial institutions, so as to bridge the current gap between human design and the ecologically sustainable systems of nature.



Read the text for detail and 1) find out if your idea of systems thinking, ecoliteracy and ecodesign coincides with that of the author; 2) make up a summary of the text putting the scrambled sentences below in the right order (first do ex. 1).

  1. The basic principles of ecosystems' organization are the principles of or­ganizations of all living systems.

  2. The principles of organization of ecosystems are the basic patterns of life.

  3. The most appropriate theoretical framework for ecology is the theory of living systems.

  4. Systems thinking is almost 100 years old, but it has still not taken hold in the mainstream culture of Western, developed countries.

SPEAKING 1



Discussion questions:

1. Global environmental hazards: which are more alarming?
S global warming

S ozone depletion

S toxic and nuclear waste

S ... (continue the list)

  1. "We want action - unless the price is too high". What does Time / CNN poll suggest? (analyse the data in ex .11)

  2. In what ways can you change what you do so as to help solve the environ­mental problems facing our planet?

Role Play

Panel Discussion: Think globally, Act Locally.

Role 1. Chairperson (U.K.)

You must open the meeting and give a short introductory speech explaining the purpose of this discussion (what communities and individuals can contrib­ute to solving global ecological problems). You are to introduce the speakers, make sure everyone gets their say and no one dominates the discussion. You an- to sum up the main points made and close the meeting.

Use File 1, part 1.

Role 2.Robert Gifford, Ph.D. (Canada)

You are an environmental psychologist. You are to speak about the results "I the studies conducted with the purpose of examining the ways individuals influence the environment. Say how people hurt the environment; don't go into «Hails.

Use file 1, part 2.

Role 3. Deborah Duran (U.S.)

You are an ecopsychologist. You are going to speak about the "ignorance" l.n tor in the destruction of the Earth.



1 isc File 1, part 3.

Role 4. Christina Sommers (U.S.)

You are an ecologist. You are going to speak about environmental myths.



1 ise File 2.

Role 5/6. Caroline and Philip Linffet (U.K.)

You are a couple from Chorley, Lancashire. You are going to speak about s out experiences of going "green".

IIsc File 3.

Role 7. Pedro Costa (Brazil)

You are a Curitiba citizen. You are to speak about Curitiba's experience of a.liliessing ecological problems.



I ise file 4.

Role 8. Peter Jones (U.S.) (optional)

You are a journalist with The Time. You are to speak about the results of Time / CNN poll: How much are Americans prepared to sacrifice in order to . nib global warming?

I Ke the material in ex.11.

I ach participant is expected to suggest ways of dealing with the problem



I.n ally.


Әдебиет тізімі:
1. Е.Б. Ястребова , Л.Г. Владыкина, М.В. Ермакова «Курс английского языка для студентов языковых вузов»

2. Айбарша Ислам «Английский язык»

3. Зражевская «Курс английского языка»

Theme 10. The global village.
Курстың мақсаты ; студенттерді ауызша сөйлеу қабілетін дамыту. студенттерге алған білімдерін жүзінде қолдану үшін кәсіби мен дағдыларға төселдіруге көмектесу.

READING

This section contains a number of articles or excerpts of articles from Brit­ish and American magazines and newspapers. Below is a set of reading tasks. In order to do these tasks you will have to decide first which reading tech­niques (skimming, scanning, fast or analytical reading) to use.



Task 1. Find out:

a) which topics the articles are related to:
S globalisation

S environmental protection

S human rights

S lifestyles

S technological advances

S social inequality

b) which topics have been omitted from this list

Task 2. Prove that your judgment is correct. (Does it involve reading the text again?)

Task 3. Find out which article is concerned with the same topic as the text in Reading 5 (unit 4); Reading 1 (unit 10). Look out for the key words.

Task 4. (team work). Choose three articles which, in your opinion, deal with the most urgent problems of today, or interest you most. Decide which ar­ticle each of you will read at home to present the author's position / opinion and to answer the questions your fellow students may have.

Text 1.
Two Scenarios

At the dawn of the 21st century we can observe two developments that will have major impact on the well-being and ways of life of humanity. Both ol these developments have to do with networks, and both involve radically new technologies. One of them is the rise of global capitalism and the Network So­ciety ; the other is the creation of sustainable communities, involving ecolitacy and ecodesign practices. Whereas global capitalism is concerned with elec-tronic networks of financial and informational flows, ecoliteracy and ecodesign .are concerned with ecological networks of energy and material flows. The goal of the global economy is to maximize the wealth and power of the elites in the Network Society; the goal of ecodesign, to maximize the sustainability of the \wh of life.

These two scenarios, each involving complex networks and special advanced technologies, are currently on a collision course. The Network Society i-. destructive of the natural world and of local communities and thus inherently unsustainable. It is based on the central value of capitalism - money-making inr the sake of making money-at the exclusion of other values.

However, human values can change; they are not natural laws. The same -electronic networks of financial and informational flows could have other val­ues built into them. Because of the great versatility and accuracy of the new in­humation and communication technologies, effective regulation of global capi-talism according to humanistic and ecological principles and values is technically feasible today. Our challenge in the 21st century will be to change die value system of the global economy so as to make it compatible with hu-in.m dignity and ecological sustainability.

This is an enterprise that transcends all our differences of race, culture or i lass. The Earth is our common home, and creating a sustainable world for our children and for future generations is our common task.

SPEAKING


Panel discussion

Speak about the issue / problem you've read about in the article of your choice (see Reading, task 4).



Task for the listeners: listen carefully and ask questions a) to clarify the points which you may not have understood; b) to find out what the presenter thinks about the issue / problem. You are welcome to express your own opin­ion.

© Pairwork (reading and speaking)

Two students choose one article to read for detail and to discuss it (to be done in class). First the students ask each other questions covering the contents of the article to make sure it has been understood in full, then they discuss the problem.



9 Comment on the statements

  1. The typical Internet user is male, under 35 years old, with a college educa­tion and high income, urban base and English-speaking.

  2. Choosing a satisfying career and lifestyle requires a basic understanding of yourself.

  3. People always call it luck when you've acted more sensibly than they have.

  4. Find a job you love and you'll never have to work a day in your life.

  5. The first step to getting the things you want out of life is this: Decide what you want.

  6. Confidence never comes from having all the answers; it comes from being open to all the questions.

  7. The history of liberty is a history of the limitation of government power.

"Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former

Әдебит тізімі:
1. Е.Б. Ястребова , Л.Г. Владыкина, М.В. Ермакова «Курс английского языка для студентов языковых вузов»

2. Айбарша Ислам «Английский язык»

3. Зражевская «Курс английского языка»

Theme 11. The United nations. The OSCE.
Курстың мақсаты ; студенттерді ауызша сөйлеу қабілетін дамыту. студенттерге алған білімдерін жүзінде қолдану үшін кәсіби мен дағдыларға төселдіруге көмектесу.

LEAD-IN


Comment on: "|Thc| United Nations may not be able to take human­ity to heaven, it must act to save humanity from hell"

Do You know:

When was the UN created?

What is the role of the UN in the International relations?

When did Kazakhstan become a member state of the UN?



Speak on the idea of the extracts:

The name "United Nations" was first coined by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1942 when representatives of 26 nations came togeth­er to promote peace and prevent war. In 1945, the United Nations was officially established to stabilize international relations and pro­mote peace in the aftermath of World War II.

The United Nations was created on October 24, 1945, when the UN charter was ratified by its founding members (China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States) and by a majority of other signatories. Its purposes, as set forth by its charter, arc organized around five areas comprising the core missions of the UN. These five areas are human rights; peace and security: economic and social policy; development operations; and humanitarian affairs. Seeking to create a mechanism for nations to work together, the Unit­ed Nations works to resolve international cultural, humanitarian, eco­nomic and social problems and promotes respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The United Nations is leading effective peacekeeping missions that promote peace, security, and freedom around the world and insure the safety of embattled populations. In 2004, almost 80,000 military and civilian personnel served in 16 Department of Peacekeeping Opera­tions (DPKO) led missions, 14 special political missions and the UN Logistics base in Brindisi, Italy under a budget of $4 billion.

Remember to:

• Skim read the text for general understanding. Don't worry if you


don't understand every word.

• Questions require you to interpret specific parts of the text, not


individual words

TASK 1. Read the text and answer the questions given below the text:
Text 1.
UN Missions Around the World
The UN's humanitarian aid efforts span the globe. Eradicating land mines, fighting communicable diseases such as AIDS, malaria, and polio, providing pre-natal care to mothers, promoting girls' education, and en­suring the availability of potable water — these are just a few of the hu­manitarian aid activities that the UN engages in around the world, from I laiti to Liberia to North Korea. Since then, the UN's mission has grown to be much more than a political forum for conflict resolution. Often without attracting attention, the UN and its family of agencies are en­gaged in a vast array of work that helps improve and save lives. Some of the areas in which the UN is engaged are: child survival and development; alleviation of poverty and economic development; emergency and disaster relief; environmental protection; human rights protection; education ac­cess for all; and the prevention of drug trafficking and terrorism.

During the past 60 years, the United Nations has helped governments, non-governmental organizations and individuals promote peace, stability and prosperity throughout the world. Together, the 191 member-states of the UN have ended wars and prevented conflict. Together they have blazed trails to eradicate polio and built international networks and warning sys­tems to end other infectious diseases. Together, they have created the stability that fosters economic growth and alleviates poverty.

1. What are the humanitarian aid activities of the UN?

?. What's the aim of the UN missions?

:s. Can you name the areas in which the UN is engaged?

Л Discuss with a partner the exact examples of the UN activity.

TASK 2. Now read the text using glossary and discuss in small groups llie issues given below Text 2.

The Millennium Development Goals: Improving the Living Conditions of the World's Most Poor by 2015 Each day 800 million people go to bed hungry and 28,000 children die from poverty-related causes, while 1.2 billion people worldwide cur-rently subsist on less than a dollar a day. The Millennium Campaign, initiated by the United Nations in 2000 and signed by all 191 member states, has outlined eight goals to eliminate the scourge of international poverty by the year 2015. The 191 states, in conjunction with the major economic institutions, such as the IMF and the World Bank, and grass­roots and civil society organizations, have pledged their commitment to reaching these eight Millennium Development Goals: eradicate poverty and hunger, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development.

In his proposal on UN reform, "In Larger Freedom," UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan places the Millennium Development Goals (MDG's) among the highest priorities on the UN Agenda. He delineates a sched­ule for the adoption and implementation by developing countries of national development strategies lo facilitate the achievement of the eight MDG's by 2015, stating further that, in 2005. a "global partnership for development... needs to be fully implemented." Member States will have an opportunity to cement this partnership at the Millennium +5 World Summit in New York in September.

GLOSSARY:

subsist on - to stay alive on only small amounts of money scourge - smth. that causes a lot of harm or suffering pledge - to do what promised facilitate - to make easier for process to happen

DISCUSS:


  1. Describe the subsistence level of people in the world.

  2. Do millenium development goals cover all global problems?

  3. Will this campaign be successful?

  4. Who will be the main actors of this action?

  5. Will the main donor countries impose their policy on poor countries9

TASK 3. You are going to read the text about steps towards the re­forming of the UN. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each part of the article (1-5). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.

A. Human Rights Council

B. Democracy Fund

C. Making Internal Audits Available



D. Conflict Management Council
Әдебиет тізімі:
1. Е.Б. Ястребова , Л.Г. Владыкина, М.В. Ермакова «Курс английского языка для студентов языковых вузов»

2. Айбарша Ислам «Английский язык»

3. Зражевская «Курс английского языка»


Theme 12. Human right protection.
Курстың мақсаты ; студенттерді ауызша сөйлеу қабілетін дамыту. студенттерге алған білімдерін жүзінде қолдану үшін кәсіби мен дағдыларға төселдіруге көмектесу.
LEAD-IN

Comment on: "The purpose of the Organization is to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without dis­tinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations." (Constitution of UNESCO, article I)

Read the extracts and substantiate the idea.

Article 1 All human beings arc born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood, (from UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

Adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly December 1948

At the 54th session of the Commission on Human Rights, com­memorating the 50th anniversary of Hie Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Secretary-General of the United Nations appealed to the international community to make the twenty-first century the age of prevention.

The consensus around human rights achieved at the 1993 World Confer- ence in the post-Cold War spirit was reinforced by the Unit­ed Nations Millennium Declaration in which all states declared to spare no effort to promote respect for all internationally recognized human rights and funda- mental freedoms, including the right to de­velopment. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopt­ed by the 1993 Conference recognized the necessity for a continuing adaptation of the United Nations human rights machinery to the cur­rent and future needs with a view, in particular, to improving its coor­dination, efficiency and effectiveness. (The American Convention and state obligations)

FOCUS ON READING

TASK 1. Scan read the text and answering the questions give its main idea: Text 1.

Defining human rights

When John P. Humphrey and his staff in the Secretariat set about fulfilling their instruction to prepare a documented outline from which the Commission on Human Rights could work, he and the Commission inaugurated an intellectual discussion of global dimensions which contin­ues to this day. There had been discussions of the content of human rights before. Indeed, wars had been fought to establish a particular notion of human rights. But these earlier debates had been among people who shared .a common culture, held common values and lived in some degree of geographic proximity to one another. They looked for different strands in their common culture to support varied emphases in human rights. What Humphrey and the Commission tried to do was vastly different and far more complex. They sought a common conception of human rights that



would command acceptance despite huge differences in culture, political systems. geographic location and economic circumstance. In fact, some considered it the main virtue of the Universal Declaration that it answered affirmatively and positively the fundamental question of whether it was possible to agree on a universal standard in the human rights area. Herbert Evatt. the Australian President of the General Assembly at the time, expressed such a view when he said: For the first time in history, the international community as a whole has spoken its collective mind about the fundamental freedoms and rights for which individual nations have fought mil suffered and died through the centuries. Finding that collective mind .mil reaching that agreement, however, were not easy tasks.

I. What is the John P. Humphrey's contribution?



7. What is the content of human rights?

'Л. Is it possible to create an ideal universal standard of human rights de­spite of huge diversities in culture, geographic location, political sys­tems, and economic circumstance?


Семей мемелекеттік педагогикалық институты
Theme 3. at colleges and universities in the uk and the usa.

Каталог: ebook -> umkd
umkd -> Мамандығына арналған Сұлтанмахмұттану ПӘнінің ОҚУ-Әдістемелік кешені
umkd -> Қазақстан Республикасының
umkd -> Қазақстан Республикасының
umkd -> Студенттерге арналған оқу әдістемелік кешені
umkd -> ПӘннің ОҚУ Әдістемелік кешені 5В011700 «Қазақ тілі мен әдебиеті» мамандығына арналған «Ұлы отан соғысы және соғыстан кейінгі жылдардағы қазақ әдебиетінің тарихы (1941-1960)» пәнінен ОҚытушыға арналған пән бағдарламасы
umkd -> «Балалар әдебиеті» пәніне арналған оқу-әдістемелік материалдар 2013 жылғы №3 басылым 5 в 050117 «Қазақ тілі мен әдебиеті»
umkd -> ПӘннің ОҚУ-Әдістемелік кешенінің
umkd -> 5 в 011700- Қазақ тілі мен әдебиеті
umkd -> 5 в 011700- Қазақ тілі мен әдебиеті
umkd -> «Филология: қазақ тілі» мамандығына арналған


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