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The Periodic Law and periodic system



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The Periodic Law and periodic system


The periodic law was developed independently by Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer in 1869. Mendeleev created the first periodic table and was shortly followed by Meyer. They both arranged the elements by their mass and proposed that certain properties periodically reoccur. Meyer formed his periodic law based on the atomic volume or molar volume, which is the atomic mass divided by the density in solid form. Mendeleev's table is noteworthy because it exhibits mostly accurate values for atomic mass and it also contains blank spaces for unknown elements.

Introduction

In 1804 physicist John Dalton advanced the atomic theory of matter, helping scientists determine the mass of the known elements. Around the same time, two chemists Sir Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday developed electrochemistry which aided in the discovery of new elements. By 1829, chemist Johann Wolfgang Doberiner observed that certain elements with similar properties occur in group of three such as; chlorine, bromine, iodine; calcium, strontium, and barium; sulfur, selenium, tellurium; iron, cobalt, manganese. However, at the time of this discovery too few elements had been discovered and there was confusion between molecular weight and atomic weights; therefore, chemists never really understood the significance of Doberiner's triad.

In 1859 two physicists Robert Willhem Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchoff discovered spectroscopy which allowed for discovery of many new elements. This gave scientists the tools to reveal the relationships between elements. Thus in 1864, chemist John A. R Newland arranged the elements in increasing of atomic weights. Explaining that a given set of properties reoccurs every eight place, he named it the law of Octaves.

The Periodic Law 

In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer individually came up with their own periodic law "when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically." Meyer based his laws on the atomic volume (the atomic mass of an element divided by the density of its solid form), this property is called Molar volume.



Mendeleev's Periodic Table



In 1869, Mendeleev classified the then known 56 elements on the basis of their physical and chemical properties in the increasing order of the atomic masses, in the form of a table. Mendeleev had observed that properties of the elements orderly recur in a cyclic fashion. He found that the elements with similar properties recur at regular intervals when the elements are arranged in the order of their increasing atomic masses. He concluded that 'the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic masses'. This came to be known as the law of chemical periodicity and stated:

Based on this law all the known elements were arranged in the form of a table called the 'Periodic Table'. Elements with similar properties recurred at regular intervals and fell in certain groups or families. The elements in each group were similar to each other in many properties. The elements with dissimilar properties from one another were separated. Mendeleev's periodic table contains eight vertical columns of elements called 'groups' and seven horizontal rows called 'periods', Each group has two sub-groups A and B. The properties of elements of a sub-group resemble each other more markedly than the properties of those between the elements of the two sub-groups.

Mendeleev's periodic table is an arrangement of the elements that group similar elements together. He left blank spaces for the undiscovered elements (atomic masses,  element: 44, scandium; 68, gallium; 72, germanium; & 100, technetium) so that certain elements can be grouped together.  However, Mendeleev had not predicted the noble gases, so no spots were left for them.




In Mendeleev's table, elements with similar characteristics fall in vertical columns, called groups. Molar volume increases from top to bottom of a group3
Example
The alkali metals (Mendeleev's group I) have high molar volumes and they also have low melting points which decrease in the order:

 

Li (174 oC) > Na (97.8 oC) > K (63.7 oC) > Rb (38.9 oC) > Cs (28.5 oC)


Atomic Number as the Basis for the Periodic Law

Assuming there were errors in atomic masses, Mendeleev placed certain elements not in order of increasing atomic mass so that they could fit into the proper groups (similar elements have similar properties) of his periodic table.  An example of this was with argon (atomic mass 39.9), which was put in front of potassium (atomic mass 39.1). Elements were placed into groups that expressed similar chemical behavior.

In 1913 Henry G.J. Moseley did researched the X-Ray spectra of the elements and suggested that the energies of electron orbitals depend on the nuclear charge and the nuclear charges of atoms in the target, which is also known as anode, dictate the frequencies of emitted X-Rays. Moseley was able to tie the X-Ray frequencies to numbers equal to the nuclear charges, therefore showing the placement of the elements in Mendeleev's periodic table. The equation he used:

ν=A(Z−b)2ν=A(Z−b)2

with


  • νν: X-Ray frequency

  • ZZ: Atomic Number

  • AA and bb: constants 

Atomic numbers, not weights, determine the factor of chemical properties. As mentioned before, argon weights more than potassium (39.9 vs. 39.1, respectively), yet argon is in front of potassium.  Thus, we can see that elements are arranged based on their atomic number.  The periodic law is found to help determine many patterns of many different properties of elements; melting and boiling points, densities, electrical conductivity, reactivity, acidic, basic, valance, polarity, and solubility.



The table below shows that elements increase from left to right accordingly to their atomic number. The vertical columns have similar properties within their group for example Lithium is similar to sodium, beryllium is similar to magnesium, and so on.

So, elements in Group 1 (periodic table) have similar chemical properties, they are called alkali metals. Elements in Group 2 have similar chemical properties, they are called the alkaline earth metals.

Short form periodic table

The short form periodic table is a table where elements are arranged in 7 rows, periods, with increasing atomic numbers from left to right. There are 18 vertical columns known as groups. This table is based on Mendeleev's periodic table and the periodic law.

Long form Periodic Table

In the long form, each period correlates to the building up of electronic shell; the first two groups (1-2) (s-block) and the last 6 groups (13-18) (p-block) make up the main-group elements and the groups (3-12) in between the s and p blocks are called the transition metals. Group 18 elements are called noble gases, and group 17 are called halogens. The f-block elements, called inner transition metals, which are at the bottom of the periodic table (periods 8 and 9); the 15 elements after barium (atomic number 56) are called lanthanides and the 14 elements after radium (atomic number 88) are called actinides.


Law of Conservation of Mass


The Law of Conservation of Mass is that, in a closed system, matter cannot be created or destroyed. It can change forms, but is conserved.

The Law of Conservation of Mass is a relation stating that in a chemical reaction, the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants. Antoine Lavoisier stated, "atoms of an object cannot be created or destroyed, but can be moved around and be changed into different particles".

The principle of conservation of mass was first outlined by Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) in 1748. He proved it by experiments—though this is sometimes challenged.[9]Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794) had expressed these ideas in 1774. Others whose ideas pre-dated the work of Lavoisier include Joseph Black (1728–1799), Henry Cavendish(1731–1810), and Jean Rey (1583–1645).[10]

The conservation of mass was obscure for millennia because of the buoyancy effect of the Earth's atmosphere on the weight of gases. For example, a piece of wood weighs less after burning; this seemed to suggest that some of its mass disappears, or is transformed or lost. This was not disproved until careful experiments were performed in which chemical reactions such as rusting were allowed to take place in sealed glass ampoules; it was found that the chemical reaction did not change the weight of the sealed container and its contents. The vacuum pump also enabled the weighing of gases using scales.

Once understood, the conservation of mass was of great importance in progressing from alchemy to modern chemistry. Once early chemists realized that chemical substances never disappeared but were only transformed into other substances with the same weight, these scientists could for the first time embark on quantitative studies of the transformations of substances. The idea of mass conservation plus a surmise that certain "elemental substances" also could not be transformed into others by chemical reactions, in turn led to an understanding of chemical elements, as well as the idea that all chemical processes and transformations (such as burning and metabolic reactions) are reactions between invariant amounts or weights of these chemical elements.

Following the pioneering work of Lavoisier the prolonged and exhaustive experiments of Jean Stas supported the strict accuracy of this law in chemical reactions,[11] even though they were carried out with other intentions. His research[12][13] indicated that in certain reactions the loss or gain could not have been more than from 2 to 4 parts in 100,000.[14]The difference in the accuracy aimed at and attained by Lavoisier on the one hand, and by Morley and Stas on the other, is enormous.



  • What is the Law of Conservation of Mass?

  • When elements and compounds react to form new products, mass cannot be lost or gained.

  • "The Law of Conservation of Mass" definition states that "mass cannot be created or destroyed, but changed into different forms".

  • So, in a chemical change, the total mass of reactants must equal the total mass of products.

  • The law of conservation of mass can also be stated "no atoms can be lost or made in a chemical reaction", which is why the total mass of products must equal the total mass of reactants you started with.

  • By using this law, together with atomic and formula masses, you can calculate the quantities of reactants and products involved in a reaction and the simplest formula of a compound

  • One consequence of the law of conservation of mass is that In a balanced chemical symbol equation, the total of relative formula masses of the reactants is equal to the total relative formula masses of the products.

2.3 reactivity series of metals.

In chemistry, a reactivity series (or activity series) is an empirical, calculated, and structurally analytical progression of a series of metals, arranged by their "reactivity" from highest to lowest.[1][2][3] It is used to summarize information about the reactions of metals with acids and waterdouble displacement reactions and the extraction of metals from their ores.



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