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Table


Metal

Ion

Reactivity

Extraction

Caesium Cs

Cs+

react with cold water

electrolysis

Francium Fr

Fr+

Rubidium Rb

Rb+

Potassium K

K+

Sodium Na

Na+

Lithium Li

Li+

Barium Ba

Ba2+

Radium Ra

Ra2+

Strontium Sr

Sr2+

Calcium Ca

Ca2+

Magnesium Mg

Mg2+

reacts very slowly with cold water, but rapidly in boiling water, and very vigorously with acids

Beryllium Be

Be2+

react with acids and steam

Aluminium Al

Al3+

Titanium Ti

Ti4+

reacts with concentrated mineral acids

pyrometallurgical extraction using magnesium, or less commonly other alkali metalshydrogen or calcium in the Kroll process

Manganese Mn

Mn2+

react with acids. Very poor reaction with steam.

smelting with coke

Zinc Zn

Zn2+

Chromium Cr

Cr3+

aluminothermic reaction

Iron Fe

Fe2+

smelting with coke

Cadmium Cd

Cd2+

Cobalt Co

Co2+

Nickel Ni

Ni2+

Tin Sn

Sn2+

Lead Pb

Pb2+

Antimony Sb

Sb3+

may react with some strong oxidizing acids

heat or
physical extraction

Bismuth Bi

Bi3+

Copper Cu

Cu2+

Tungsten W

W3+

Mercury Hg

Hg2+

Silver Ag

Ag+

Osmium Os

Os+

Palladium Pd

Pd2+

Gold Au/Platinum Pt

Au3+/Pt4+[4][5]

Going from the bottom to the top of the table the metals:

  • increase in reactivity;

  • lose electrons (oxidize) more readily to form positive ions;

  • corrode or tarnish more readily;

  • require more energy (and different methods) to be separated from their ores;

  • become stronger reducing agents (electron donors).

Defining reactions[edit]

There is no unique and fully consistent way to define the reactivity series, but it is common to use the three types of reaction listed below, many of which can be performed in a high-school laboratory (at least as demonstrations).[4]

Reaction with water and acids[edit]

The most reactive metals, such as sodium, will react with cold water to produce hydrogen and the metal hydroxide:

2 Na (s) + 2 H2O (l) →2 NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)

Metals in the middle of the reactivity series, such as iron, will react with acids such as sulfuric acid (but not water at normal temperatures) to give hydrogen and a metal salt, such as iron(II) sulfate:

An iron nail placed in a solution of copper sulfate will quickly change colour as metallic copper is deposited and the iron is converted into iron(II) sulfate:

Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)

Similarly, magnesium can be used to extract titanium from titanium tetrachloride, forming magnesium chloride in the process:

2 Mg (s) + TiCl4 (l) → Ti (s) + 2 MgCl2 (s)

However, other factors can come into play, such as in the preparation of metallic potassium by the reduction of potassium chloride with sodium at 850 °C. Although sodium is lower than potassium in the reactivity series, the reaction can proceed because potassium is more volatile, and is distilled off from the mixture.

Na (g) + KCl (l) → K (g) + NaCl (l)

Comparison with standard electrode potentials[edit]

The reactivity series is sometimes quoted in the strict reverse order of standard electrode potentials, when it is also known as the "electrochemical series":

Li > K > Sr > Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Mn > Zn > Cr(+3) > Fe > Cd > Co > Ni > Sn > Pb > H > Cu > Hg > Ag > Pd > Ir > Pt > Au

The positions of lithium and sodium are changed on such a series; gold and platinum are in joint position and not gold leading, although this has little practical significance as both metals are highly unreactive.

Standard electrode potentials offer a quantitative measure of the power of a reducing agent, rather than the qualitative considerations of other reactive series. However, they are only valid for standard conditions: in particular, they only apply to reactions in aqueous solution. Even with this proviso, the electrode potentials of lithium and sodium – and hence their positions in the electrochemical series – appear anomalous. The order of reactivity, as shown by the vigour of the reaction with water or the speed at which the metal surface tarnishes in air, appears to be

potassium > sodium > lithium > alkaline earth metals,

the same as the reverse order of the (gas-phase) ionization energies. This is borne out by the extraction of metallic lithium by the electrolysis of a eutectic mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride: lithium metal is formed at the cathode, not potassium.[6]


In a reactivity series, the most reactive element is placed at the top and the least reactive element at the bottom. More reactive metals have a greater tendency to lose electrons and form positive ions.

A reactivity series of metals could include any elements. For example:



A good way to remember the order of a reactivity series of metals is to use the first letter of each one to make up a silly sentence. For example: People Say Little Children Make A Zebra Ill ConstantlySniffing Giraffes.

Observations of the way that these elements react with water, acidsand steam enable us to put them into this series.

The tables show how the elements react with water and dilute acids:



Element

Reaction with water

Potassium

Violently

Sodium

Very quickly

Lithium

Quickly

Calcium

More slowly




Element

Reaction with dilute acids

Calcium

Very quickly

Magnesium

Quickly

Zinc

More slowly

Iron

More slowly than zinc

Copper

Very slowly

Silver

Barely reacts

Gold

Does not react

Note that aluminium can be difficult to place in the correct position in the reactivity series during these experiments. This is because its protective aluminium oxide layer makes it appear to be less reactive than it really is. When this layer is removed, the observations are more reliable.

Каталог: uploads -> doc -> 0a52
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