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Relationship to other "molecular-scale" biological sciences[edit]



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Relationship to other "molecular-scale" biological sciences[edit]




Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology

Researchers in biochemistry use specific techniques native to biochemistry, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ideas developed in the fields of geneticsmolecular biology and biophysics. There has never been a hard-line among these disciplines in terms of content and technique. Today, the terms molecular biology and biochemistry are nearly interchangeable. The following figure is a schematic that depicts one possible view of the relationship between the fields:

- Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organismsBiochemists focus heavily on the role, function, and structure of biomolecules. The study of the chemistry behind biological processes and the synthesis of biologically active molecules are examples of biochemistry.

- Genetics is the study of the effect of genetic differences on organisms. Often this can be inferred by the absence of a normal component (e.g., one gene). The study of "mutants" – organisms with a changed gene that leads to the organism being different with respect to the so-called "wild type" or normal phenotypeGenetic interactions (epistasis) can often confound simple interpretations of such "knock-out" or "knock-in" studies.

- Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replicationtranscription and translation of the genetic material. The central dogma of molecular biology where genetic material is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein, despite being an oversimplified picture of molecular biology, still provides a good starting point for understanding the field. This picture, however, is undergoing revision in light of emerging novel roles for RNA.[53]

- Chemical biology seeks to develop new tools based on small molecules that allow minimal perturbation of biological systems while providing detailed information about their function. Further, chemical biology employs biological systems to create non-natural hybrids between biomolecules and synthetic devices (for example emptied viral capsidsthat can deliver gene therapy or drug molecules).



6. Тexts on biology in english to high school
Listening
Solution
We classify the organisms to study the diversity effectively and easily hence, it is necessary to arrange various kinds of organisms in an orderly manner.

1. We see microscopic bacteria of the range of few micrometers in size. e.g. Plasmodium, amoeba. They live for a short span of time e.g. blue green algae etc.

2. We have bigger animals like 30 meters long or more e.g. blue whale etc. live for long life.

3. We have even more large organisms as red wood tree of California living for thousands of years.

The Plant Kingdom can be further classified into five divisions. Their key characteristics are given below:

1. Thallophytic:- The plant body is simple thallus type. The plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves. They are commonly known as algae. Examples: Spirogyra, char, Volvo, ulothtrix, etc.

2. Bryophyte:- Plant body is differentiated into stem and leaf like structure. Vascular system is absent, which means there is no specialized tissue for transportation of water, minerals and food. Bryophytes are also known as the amphibians of the plant kingdom, because they need water to complete a part of their life cycle. Examples: Moss, merchant.

3. Pteridophyta:- Plant body is differentiated into root, stem and leaf. Vascular system is present. They do not bear seeds and hence are called cryptogams. Plants of rest of the divisions bear seeds and hence are called phanerogams. Examples: Marisela, ferns, horse tails, etc.

4. Gymnosperms:- They bear seeds. Seeds are naked, i.e. are not covered. The word ‘gyms’ means naked and ‘sperm’ means seed. They are perennial plants. Examples: Pine, cycads, deodar, etc.

5. Angiosperms:- The seeds are covered. The word ‘amigos’ means covered. There is great diversity in species of angiosperm. Angiosperms are also known as flowering plants, because flower is a specialized organ meant for reproduction. Angiosperms are further divided into two groups, viz. monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous.

(a) Monocotyledonous: There is single seed leaf in a seed. A seed leaf is a baby plant. Examples: wheat, rice, maize, etc.



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