1. The main duty of the pedagogical worker is a maintenance of reception trained knowledge, abilities, skills not below level and the volume provided by corresponding state general educational standards of formation.
2. For performance of the main duty perfection of professional abilities to level of pedagogical skill is necessary not only vocational training, but also constant dynamics in increase of the qualification. «All in our pedagogical business solves finally skill. But what difficult and long usually there is for teachers a way to skill - the professor J. P.Azarov writes - the expert is the expert of high culture deeply knowing the subject, practically understanding questions of psychology, the pedagogics, owning a training and education technique» [ 6, p. 104 ].
3. An integral part of work of the teacher is revealing and assistance to development of individual and creative abilities trained and pupils. Each child is allocated by millions inclinations, the problem of teachers, parents consists in their revealing and creation of conditions for their development.
4. J.A.Komensky demands, that the teacher showed consideration for children, was affable, tender, did not push away from itself the severe reference, involved with a fatherlike arrangement, manners, words. To learn children it is necessary easily and joyfully, «that the science drink was swallowed without a beating, cries, violence, disgust, say, is pleasant and affable» [7,p. 207]..
5. To respect advantage trained, pupils is a display of humanity of the teacher in perception of the pupil, as persons, the higher value from all existing in the world. It is ability to accept the child with all its lacks and skillfully unostentatiously, tactfully to correct his belief and behavior.
A list of used literature:
1. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. - Almaty, 1992.
2. Law "On Education" / / Kazakhstan Pravda, June 11, 1999
3. Concept of the public policy in the field of education. - Almaty, 1995.
4. Slastenin V.A. Education. - Moscow, 2000.
5. Sadykov T.S. About the development of the leading ideas in the training of some future specialists / / ASU named after Abay № 5 (5), 2001.
6. Kukushina V.S. Introduction to teaching. - Rostov-on-Don, 2002., p. 104
7. Pedagogy. Course of lectures. \\ ASU, Department of pedagogy , 2003., p. 207
8. Pedagogy. / Edited by Sergey Smirnov.- Moscow, 2001.
Aннотация. Бұл мақалада Қазақстан Республикасының білім жүйесіне мінездеме берілген. Білім жүйесінің негізгі үдерістері қарастырылған. Білім саясатына қатысты маңызды құжаттар талданған.
Аннотация. В данной статъе дана характеристика образовательной системе Республики Казахстан. Рассмотрены основные принципы в системе образования. Сделан анализ наиболее значимых документов, относящихся к образовательной политике.
SWIFT PARADIGM IN ELT A.B. Botamkulova
Taraz state pedagogical institute, Taraz city
“England and America are the two countries divided by a common language.” (G.Bernard Shaw). Of course English is widely accepted beyond the subcontinents of England and America. It has become globalised with the passage of time. It is the recarnation of language i.e. English which is taken either as EFL (English as a foreign language) or (English as a second language) ESL. Sufficient courage is required to accept this transition of English language just as Chowmin of china, Pizza of Italy, etc. [1, 14, 31 p.].
Generation X brings new language with multidimensional approach. It is make them feel light and for the enhancement of the students’ imagination. The goal is to enable students to communicate in the target language. For this, students are to be taken to the world of imagination and creativity; Throw the child into the pool of some topics and let him learn swimming of thoughts by himself.
Teaching and learning a foreign language cannot be reduced to the direct teaching of linguistic skills for instance phonology, morphology vocabulary and syntax. According to Kramsch (1993) “culture” is always in the background, right from day one, ready to unsettle the good language learners when they expect it least, making evident the limitations of their hard won communicative competence, challenging their ability to make sense of the world around them.” Bilingualism or multilingualism confers definite cognitive advantage; the 3-language formula is an attempt to address the challenges and opportunities of the linguistic situation in India. It is a strategy that should really serve as a launching pad for learning more languages. In this ret race, English does not stand alone. The aim of English teaching is the creation of multilinguals that can enrich all our languages. English must be seen in relation to other subjects- a language across the curriculum to bridge up the gap between “English as a subject” and “English as a medium of teaching.” [4, 101-114 p.].
In EFL classroom, students are usually monolingual and they learn English while in their own country. They have little access to the target culture and therefore a limited ability to become culturally competent. Their aim for English is not only to communicate with native speakers of English but also with non-native speakers of English. That’s why, EFL learners are typically the learners of English as International language (EIL). And students are enable to become users of International or Intercultural communication. Thus, target language becomes a tool to be used in interaction with from all over the world.
Teacher’s autonomy is essential for ensuring a learning environment which addresses students’ diverse needs. As much as the learners requires space, freedom, flexibility and respect; the teachers requires them all. There is a need to encourage an atmosphere that facilitates collaborative efforts among teachers. There must be mechanism for conflict resolution.
There is a shift from traditional to performance based assessment: - (Bailey K.M. 1998)
One short tests - Continuous assessment
Text book based tests - Classroom performance test
Inauthentic tests - More real world assessment
Decantextualised text task - Contextualized test tasks
No feedbacks provided to learners - Feedback provided to learners in 4 skills- LSRW
Subjective correction a grading - Standardized scoring
No test follow up - Remedial classes available
Negative feedback - Positive feedback
Current Literature on ELT criticizes the transfer of CLT from western English speaking countries to other development contexts. This transfer is seen as problematic since pedagogy imported from abroad conflicts with the social, Cultural and physical conditions of the recipient countries. The ultimate goal of English teaching is to help learners acquire a good working command of English. The solution appears to be modified version of CLT. For this, a deep understanding of CLT theory and its Implications for classroom practice is important.
To support the theoretical and practical foundation of CLT, Savignon identified and describe five components of a communicative curriculum:
Language arts include exercises used in mother tongue programs to focus on formal accuracy.
Language for a purpose – real communicative goals.
Personal English Language use relates to the learners’ emerging identity in English.
Theatre Arts provide learners with the tools, needed to act in a new language life interpretation, Expression, negotiation.
Beyond classroom refers to the need to prepare learners to use the language they learn outside the classroom.
Scholars and teachers agree that motivation is crucial in language teaching. One well known way to arouse students’ interest can be achieved by bringing something extraordinary into new language classroom: -
Comic strips can be used efficiently. Comics are funny; applying them to methodological purposes will have the same effect just as using games in teaching English. According to John Oller (1983) “texts are more episodically organized, stored and recalled more easily than less episodically organized matend.”
Radio can bring authentic content to the classroom especially in the EFL environment, where it may not be easy to meet & talk with native speakers of English. Radio can be useful in developing countries with authentic English language content such as Videotape, recorders, film projectors.
Dramahelps students to build up self-confidence and skills in group dynamics. Drama gives a flavor of Co-Curriculum activities into the technical teaching of ELT.
Role-play are touted as fun and motivation because it allows students to be creative, promote cooperative learning, provide practice in real life situations, improving communicative competence and fluency.
Songs and poems can be used as a warm up exercise. Experienced teachers know that songs and poems are an excellent way to begin or end a lesson. It’s very important for the students of learning EFL as students have a soft corner for songs and poems from the Early Childhood days.
Therefore, a large variety of successful innovations exist. Approaches and methods are not exclusive but mutually supportive within a broad cognitive philosophy (incorporating Vygotskian, Chomoskyan and Piagetian principles). Higher Order Skills, including literary appreciation, can be developed once fundamental Competencies are ensured.
1.Zofia Chlopek. Intercultural Approach. 2006.
2.Brown H.D. Teaching by Principles; An interactive Approach to language pedalogy. 1994.
3.Upendrun S. Using songs. 1998.
4.Gill, CS. Using drama techniques, 1996.
5.Brown, H.D. Principles of language learning and teaching. 1994.
Аннотация. В данной статье рассматривает педагогический подход при обучении английскому языку. В частности, английский язык рассматривается не только как предмет изучения, но и как средство обучения.
Аннотация. Бұл мақалада автор ағылшын тіліне үйренудің педагогикалық - мәдени жақтары қарастырылады. Ағылшын тілі тек зерттеу нысаны ғана емес, сондай-ақ үйрету құралы ретінде де қарастырылады.
Ж 88 LEGISLATIVE BASES OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF THE REBUBLIC
OF KAZAKHSTAN. STRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM R.A. Zhumagaliev, M.V.Kazankina
Taraz state pedagogical institute, Taraz city
It is important to a future teacher, and nowadays student of a teacher training University to have full, accurate idea about legislative base of the educational system of the Republic of Кazakhstan, state policy principles in a sphere of education, education system structure, substantive provisions of the major standard documents regulating the maintenance of education of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It will help to understand from the very beginning the difficult mechanism of functioning of the educational system, to comprehend it priority and as a fundamental component of formation and strengthening of the state independence, progressive development of the country. Classically the educational system, as well as any state represents set of the co-operating:
- Successive educational programs and state standards of education for various educational levels and an orientation;
- Networks of educational institutions realizing them irrespective of their organizational-legal forms, types and kinds;
- The controls education providing realization of educational programs and development of the educational system.
In Law RК «About formation» «the Model of a national education system» according to which four educational levels are established :
1. Preschool education and training;
2. Secondary education;
3. The higher vocational training;
4. Postgraduated vocational training, that more corresponds, recommended to UNESCO (1997), the International standard classification of formation (МСКО). The given model is based on principles of a continuity, continuity of some educational programs and the international requirements. (Item 22).
On character of realized educational programs formation is subdivided into the general education and vocational training. The general education includes:
1. Preschool training and education - the first level of continuous formation creating developing environment for formation of the person of the child taking into account age and specific features.
The right of children to preschool training and education is provided with a network of the preschool organizations and an additional education:
Children's day nursery (1 - 3 years);
Children's day nursery-gardens (1 - 6 years);
Kindergarten (3 - 6 years)
Complex «a children's garden-school»;
The preschool centers of different profiles (humanitarian, aesthetic, sports, linguistic, etc.);
The centers for the presented preschool children or with the limited possibilities.
Within the limits of level of preschool education and training obligatory preschool preparation 5 - 6-year-old children which is supposed in a family, a comprehensive school or preschool centers, for the purpose of touch development, working off of impellent skills, development of spatial orientation, communicative qualities, skills of a culture of behavior, strengthening of health, physical, psychological, motivational readiness of children for school is provided.
2. The secondary education is a base link of a complete continuous education system of the country.
The right of citizens to secondary education is provided with a network of comprehensive schools, vocational training educational institutions:
According to «Model of the national education system» the secondary education includes the general secondary education in comprehensive schools, grammar schools, lycées, a professional elementary education (upon termination of 9 (10) or 11 (12) classes) in vocational schools, lycées, the TECHNICAL TRAINING COLLEGE, average vocational training (upon termination of 9 (10) or 11 (12) classes) in colleges.
After the termination of 9 (10) classes pupils can continue training not only in vocational schools, lycées, but also in educational institutions of average vocational training.
The average general education is stage by stage got in a general educational educational institution of three steps: initial (1-4 classes), the basic (5-9 (10) classes and senior (10-11 (11-12) classes ) which correspond to three basic periods of development: to the childhood, adolescence, a youth
Training and education at this step is guided by formation of positive motive and abilities in educational activity, scills readings, letters, accounts, experience of language dialogue, a culture of behavior, bases of hygiene and ЗОЖ, creative self-realization.
The basic school - 2 step - the basic general education, 5-9 (10) classes, duration of training of 6 years.
Training and education at this step is guided by development of basic bases of system of sciences and formation of culture interpersonal and interethnic общений, self-determination of the person and vocational counseling. At the given step the maintenance of each subject logically comes to the end in volume of the basic base formation.
High school - 3 step - 10-11 (11-12) classes, duration of training 2 years. At the given step transition from installation on acquisition of knowledge to mastering by the systematized representations about the world, a society, the person should be provided, ability independently to expand and deepen them.
Now the tendency of transformation of comprehensive schools in schools of new type - grammar schools, lycées is shown.
The state educational standard of the average general education is realized within educational programs of initial professional or average vocational training taking into account a profile of received vocational training.
3.Initial vocational training has for an object preparation of workers of skilled work (employees, working) in all directions of socially useful activity on the basis of the core or secondary education. Initial vocational training can be received in the TECHNICAL TRAINING COLLEGE, vocational schools, lycées.
4. Average vocational traininghas for an object preparation of experts of an average link of serving and administrative work. Duration of training on the basis of secondary education (except specialities "formation" and "medicine") - 2 years, on the basis of technical and vocational training - not less than 1 year.
5. The higher vocational training - the third educational level, is got by the citizens having average, average vocational training. In РК following kinds of HIGH SCHOOLS are established: university, academy, institute, conservatory, the higher school, the higher school.
University - the versatile higher educational institution realizing educational programs of higher professional formations, on a wide spectrum of the specialities, carrying out retraining and improvement of professional skill of experts and science officers with the higher education, carrying out scientific researches in areas of the activity.
Institute - the higher educational institution which is realizing educational programs of the higher vocational training and carrying out scientific researches of applied character.
The higher education has for an object satisfaction of interests of a society, the state and the person in the higher education reception, giving to each person ample opportunities in a choice of the maintenance, the form, training terms. In РК the following structure of the higher vocational training is established: the higher base formation on all specialities (bachelor degree), term of training 4 years, except medical and zooveterinary specialities. Further the bachelor has possibility to continue training in 1-2-годичной to a magistracy.
6. Postgraduate formation - the fourth educational level
In a magistracy preparation will be spent in two directions:
- Profile profound preparation;
- Scientific and pedagogical preparation.
To graduates of a magistracy the academic degree "master" which have the right to continue training in doctoral studies is appropriated or to be engaged in scientific and pedagogical activity.
The doctoral studiesare a finishing educational level of preparation of scientific and scientific and pedagogical shots of the top skills. Training term under doctor's programs - 3 years.
To the persons who mastered the program of doctoral studies and have protected the thesis for a doctor's degree, the academic degree of the doctor of philosophy is appropriated, at development of profile doctoral studies - doctors on a profile (music, medicine, the rights, formations etc.).
7. An additional education
The additional education and additional educational services are realized with a view of all-round satisfaction of educational requirements of citizens, the state, a society. Educational programs of additional development for children and youth are realized in out-of-school establishments: palaces, houses, the centres, complexes, studios of children's and youthful creativity, station and base of young technicians, tourists, naturalists, nurseries musical, art, sports schools, schools of arts, clubs on interests, sports and improving tourist camp, children's parks, galleries, stadiums, etc.
8. Special schools for visually impaired-hearing, for pupils with deviations in speech development. Provide treatment, education, training, social adaptation, integration in a society.
9. Establishments for children of orphans and children who have remained without care of parents - children's villages of family type, the youth house, children's homes, boarding schools, - solve problems of education, training, life and health preservation, preparation for an independent life and work of children of the given category.
3. The documents regulating the maintenance of formation.
According to Law РК “About formation” formation standards are entered. The formation maintenance also is regulated by curricula, curriculums in subjects, fixed in textbooks, manuals, electronic stores of the information (computer programs, videocassettes, video disks). These documents represent one of education system components.
State educational standard.
The concept "standard" occurs from a Latin word “standard”, meaning "criterion", “norm,"sample". The formation standard is a system of key parametres, as the state norm of erudition reflecting requirements of a society and considering possibilities of the real person.
The idea of standardization is not new. It existed and during Soviet time. Though in the USSR concept State Educational Standards was not used, but it was reflected in uniform curricula. They went down in republics and were a basis of real curricula of schools. Curricula and programs of those years differed Soviet idealogization, teachers limited in the initiative, creativity, and the pupil in possibility of a choice of the maintenance of formation according to the interests and abilities. And at the same time uniform curricula and programs leveled formation in all country, this most had been checked up in practice idea of deducing of the educational standard.
Existing now do not subordinate educational process in a uniform template, and open ample opportunities for pedagogical creativity, and itself State Educational Standards is a kernel, an obligatory minimum вариативных curricula, programs, technologies of training.
State turn to democracy, market relations, the rights and personal freedoms has caused necessity of carrying out of standardization of formation. The education sphere is focused on satisfaction of spiritual needs of the person that promoted considerable changes in the formation organization. Formation standardization has allowed change of the status of many schools, a free choice of the organization of educational process, introduction of new curricula, a free choice of subjects, introduction of the alternative textbooks, new pedagogical technologies. At the same time State Educational Standards is that mechanism which provides an obligatory minimum and existence of uniform educational space in the country. The base unity of educational space allows to provide the uniform educational level, received trained in different types of educational institutions (lycées, grammar schools, colleges, comprehensive schools, both state, and not state). Standards of formation underlie curricula and curriculums. An overall objective of introduction of the standard of formation - support of stable level of erudition of citizens according to inquiries of a society and possibilities trained, creation of equal conditions, irrespective of school type.
The curriculum- the standard document defining structure of subjects, their sequence on years of training, annual and week quantity of the hours which are taken away on studying of each subject in a cut of years of training. In educational practice of Kazakhstan by one of the basic components of state standard of the average general education the basic curriculum which establishes a circle of the specifications defining the maximum volume of an academic load of
The workingcurriculum - didactic model of process of training of an educational institution. basic educational and concrete typical educational plans.
Structurally working curriculum consists of components: invariant (base), вариативный (school and student's).
The state standard of average general education RK regulates obligatory observance of structure and structure of the base maintenance of formation for all types and kinds of general educational educational institutions, (an invariant component), that provides performance of a principle of functional completeness of the maintenance of formation, maintenance of uniform educational space in republic.
The account of interests of pupils, their abilities, educational requirements of children and parents realizes an educational institution through the organization of educational activity within the limits of school and student's components of the working curriculum. The school has the right to regulate itself an academic load on school and student's components within the general loading вариативной curriculum parts. As a whole вариативный the curriculum component allows to deepen and expand the base maintenance of formation of an invariant component, using following approaches by transfer of hours вариативного a component on realization of programs of profound studying of base subjects of an invariant part of the plan, introduction of new training courses or modules through employment for choice, facultative courses and applied courses, on the organization of individual and group consultations or employment of is active-impellent character. Health preserving function of the working curriculum is provided with observance of sanitary norms and rules on the organization of educational activity.
At all variety of educational institutions all their types are created on the basis of an average comprehensive school. Important at the organization of the working curriculum to allocate specificity of an educational institution of new type. The understanding the head of formation of the declared specificity of an educational institution will allow to make the working curriculum as the real tool of achievement of quality of formation. An obligatory compound component of the working curriculum is the explanatory note as the document reflecting standard bases of the organization of educational process, approaches of pedagogical collective to its working out.
The curriculum is the standard document reflecting a circle of the basic knowledge, abilities, skills which should be acquired on each subject. Curriculums can be typical, working, author's. Typical curriculums are developed on the basis of the state educational standard on certain discipline. They have recommendatory character. Working curriculums are created on the basis of typical, but at the same time reflect requirements, specificity of the given educational institution and affirm at teachers' meeting session. Author's curriculums consider requirements of the educational standard, but can have the original logic of a statement of a teaching material, author's sights and judgements on the studied phenomena and processes. Author's curriculums are discussed and affirm at sessions of a faculty meeting or regional methodical associations.
Explanatory note, the maintenance, methodical instructions. There were two types of a statement of a teaching material in curriculums. The linear way of a statement consists that the material of the given step of training is logic continuation of that material which was studied in previous years. The concentric way of a statement consists that the material of the given step of training at the subsequent steps is studied in more complicated kind. The given way of consentrizm is caused by the account of age features of pupils. Recently was extended a spiral way of a statement, an essence which consists that the volume of knowledge on the given problem or a theme constantly extends and goes deep. Also there is a mixed type of a statement of a material which represents an alloy or a combination of the above-stated ways. If in curriculums the consecutive list by that in the given subject for the given academic year their maintenance that, their disclosing is concentrated in textbooks and manuals is reflected. The maintenance of an educational material also is fixed in computer programs, videocassettes, video disks. But paramount value in a statement of an educational material belongs to the textbook.
The textbook is the book consistently stating bases of knowledge on a certain subject. The textbook carries out two basic functions:
1. The textbook as an information source;
2. The textbook as a tutorial.
The textbook in the structural relation consists of the main component-text and auxiliary – out texted a material. Texts differ on the cores, additional, explanatory.
The basic text is subdivided into two kinds: epistemo-logical and instrumental-practical. The Episteme-logical basic text opens the conceptual device, base concepts, describes processes, the phenomena, events, states laws, theories, the hypotheses conducting ideas, conclusions, rules.
The instrumental-practical basic text describes experiences, experiments, conditions of problems, exercises, specifies methods of application of knowledge.
The additional text includes a material of axiomatic character: a help material, statistical given, biographic and others. The reference to readers here concerns. The explanatory text, joins introduction, notes, the thesaurus, explanatories to illustrations, schemes, cards, tables. Except the text in the textbook there is out texted a material which concern the device of the organization of mastering of a material (questions, tasks, instructions, instructions, exercises), an orientation device (the foreword, a table of contents, indexes, symbols), an illustrative material (cards, diagrams, tables, schemes drawings, schedules, etc.) Addition to the textbook are manuals which deepen the maintenance of a material of the textbook. Practical works, directories, dictionaries concern manuals, cards хрестоматии. Atlases, books for additional reading, collections, working writing-books, etc.
The rights and duties of workers of the organizations of formation.
The rights and duties of the citizen of any state are fixed in the organic law - Constitutions of the given state. Perhaps, most mass of human both most socially and socially significant trade most socially is pedagogical. It is natural, that the state guarantees, duties and the rights of all participants of educational space should be fixed legislatively: trained and pupils, parents, workers of the organizations of formation.
The rights and duties of workers of the organizations of formation are defined:
1. Law РК «About formation» (item 41);
2. Charters of the organizations, breeding-educational institutions;
3. Duty regulations;
4. Rules of an internal order of establishments of formation.