1. Theoretical analysis of the use of video materials in foreign language lessons.
1.1.The role of audiovisual means in the course of teaching English in high schools and their methodical characteristic Language is the most important means of communication, without which the existence and development of human society is impossible. In the modern world, knowledge of only one’s native language is not enough; therefore, more and more attention is paid to the study of foreign languages at school. A foreign language is a compulsory subject of the curriculum, it has been studied for many years, it requires a special technique and mastery of teaching from the teacher, but mastering it outside the language environment is very difficult. A lot of effort is required from the trainee himself, but most of it is assigned to the role of a teacher. In order to form stable positive motivation of students in relation to a foreign language, in order to achieve the most optimal level of mastering educational material, the teacher should use non-standard forms of work, include new methods and methods of teaching foreign languages in the learning process, and turn to new technical means of teaching.
Knowledge of a foreign language increases the level of humanitarian education of students, contributes to the formation of a personality and its social adaptation to the conditions of a constantly changing multicultural, multilingual world. In the modern world, knowledge of foreign languages is a necessity; English is the most popular, as it has the status of an international language. Based on the requirements for modern education and the need to fulfill the social order of educating a competent person, each teacher is forced to solve many problems in finding modern ways of learning, making it exciting and relevant standards.
Despite some progress (using the Internet, various programs, etc.), one of the difficulties of learning a foreign language is the very limited ability to communicate with native speakers and use speaking skills outside of school. Therefore, an important task of the teacher is to create real and imaginary situations of communication in a foreign language lesson using various methods of work. No less important is the inclusion of students to the cultural values of the people who speak the language. To this end, authentic materials are of great importance - videos and various video materials. Their use contributes to the implementation of the most important requirements of the communicative method - to present the process of mastering the language as an apprehension of a living foreign language culture; individualization of learning and development and motivation of speech activity of students.
The modern teacher is given the opportunity to use an extensive range of technical teaching aids, among which the most accessible and common, as well as universal is video technology, which allows the use of both listening and video support of educational material. It can be noted that the introduction of video in the learning process changes the nature of the traditional lesson, making it more alive and interesting. Also, the use of video in the classroom contributes to expanding the general horizons of students, enriching their language reserves and regional geographic knowledge.
It should be noted that the video is not only another source of information. The use of a video film contributes to the development of various aspects of students' mental activity, and above all, attention and memory. During viewing in the classroom an atmosphere of joint cognitive activity. Under these conditions, even an inattentive student becomes attentive, because students need to make some efforts to understand the content of the film. So involuntary attention turns into arbitrary, and the intensity of attention influences the process of memorization. The use of various channels of information receipt (auditory and visual channels, motor perception) has a positive effect on the strength of capturing regional geographic and linguistic material.
Thus, the psychological characteristics of the impact of educational videos on students (the ability to manage the attention of each student and group audience, influence the amount of long-term memory and increase memorization strength, have an emotional impact on students and increase learning motivation) contribute to the intensification of the educational process and create favorable conditions for communicative (linguistic and sociocultural) competence of school children
The video has a rather strong emotional impact on students, influences the formation of a personal relationship to what they see. Another advantage of the video is the immediacy of the image of reality, the special manner of communication with the audience (if it is a TV show or television show), the use of close-ups, unobtrusive presentation of information, color, background music. In contact with what is happening on the screen, the conditions most close to the natural are created (the natural language environment is a combination of speech and non-speech conditions that reflect the life, history, culture and traditions of native speakers in the facts of this language).
In contrast from audio or printed text, which may have a highly informative, educational, educational and developmental value, video text has the advantage of combining various aspects of the act of speech interaction. In addition to the content side of communication, video text contains visual information about the place of the event, appearance and non-verbal behavior of the participants in a particular situation, often due to the specifics of age, gender and psychological characteristics of the personality of the speakers.
Using video in the classroom helps to solve the following tasks:
• Increase learning motivation
• Intensification of training
• Activation of trainees
• Independent work of students
• Improving the quality of student knowledge.
There is a huge amount of video that can be used in English classes. These can be commercials or interviews with famous people, cartoons or a plot from world blockbusters, snippets of news and TV shows. In the scientific and methodical literature there is no strict classification of video materials. On the technical side, it is possible to distinguish between video recordings, i.e. materials recorded on information media, and those that are directly broadcast on the air. Thanks to modern technology and the Internet, virtually any information can be found on the global network and recorded on a carrier.
Based on the presentation method, all audiovisual materials can be divided into filmstrips and video films.
Filmstrip (from the Greek. Δια - prefix, here meaning "transition from beginning to end", and the English film - photo or film) - a positive (slide) film (rarely - a few films), whose frames are thematically related to each other and constitute a coherent illustration. Filmstrips are divided into teaching, serving as an illustrative educational tool in school, lecture and propaganda work, and art with a set of illustrations and a brief text of a work of art (most often a children's fairy tale). Slideshows that are quite widely used in the learning process and as visual material presented by the teacher, and in project-based learning, as a slide show created by an apprentice, can be attributed to filmstrips in modern interpretation.
Recently, the most widely used videos in teaching foreign languages.
Video film (English film - film), motion picture - a separate work of cinema. Technologically, a film is usually a collection of photographic images (frames) connected by a single plot. Films are created by recording images of the world using movie cameras, or are made from individual images using animation or special effects.
There is a huge amount of video materials that can be divided into the following:
a)Feature films (cartoons, various feature films, fragments of performances)
b)Popular science, journalistic (interviews, documentary and educational films)
c)Informational (advertising, recordings of news, TV shows, videos)
d)Cultural (video tours)
The most important in the methodical plan is the following classification of video materials.
1.Specially designed for learning a foreign language (video courses and other educational films);
2.Intended for native speakers or authentic, including feature films and live broadcast of television programs;
3.Developed by teachers and students;
Videos belonging to the first two categories are widely used in the learning process due to accessibility and less complexity in use. Video materials developed independently can solve a larger number of tasks set by the teacher, as the teacher chooses fragments for shooting and can influence the process itself, directing it in the right direction. To create such materials requires a lot of time, careful planning and the availability of technical equipment. Like plots specifically designed for learning a foreign language, self-developed fragments are distinguished by an artificially created speech situation.
Video tutorials are available on all levels of learning English. They consist of small episodes and have additional didactic material. According to B.Tomalin, there are 2 types of educational video materials:
a) directly teaching the language
b) acting as an additional source for language learning (resource video)
Training material of the first type is characterized by learning directly from the screen, where the leader demonstrates samples of structures. The role of the teacher is reduced to using the book for the teacher and auxiliary tools to improve the skills and abilities of the trainees.
Video of the second type contains more cognitive information that shows how language is used at various levels. It is usually unrelated content episodes, which takes into account the degree of complexity and speech functions.
From the point of view of the methodology, an educational film (video) is an audiovisual training tool specially prepared in a methodical and directorial plan, designed to create natural situations of verbal communication and has a great deal of emotional impact on students through the synthesis of the main types of visualization (visual, auditory, motor , figurative, extralinguistic, etc.).
Authentic videos offer a greater variety of language and speech patterns, including various regional accents, common and special vocabulary, idioms, etc., and in a real context, how native speakers use them. They provide ample opportunities for mastering a foreign language culture. At the same time, these videos are mainly focused on students with good language skills, since for beginners to learn a language they present significant difficulties related to speech speed, its individual typological characteristics, dialects, features, background noise, etc.
Authentic video materials have various methodical features. According to the genre-thematic focus, they can be divided into 3 groups:
a) entertainment programs (dramatic works of all kinds, shows, music videos, sports and entertainment programs, etc.)
b) programs based on factual information (documentary video, TV debates, etc.)
c) “short programs” (episodes), lasting from 10 seconds to 10-15 minutes (news, weather forecast, sports scores, advertisements, etc.)
Demonstration of video related to any of the above categories, is of great importance in the process of learning foreign languages. While watching video materials, auditory-visual synthesis occurs, simultaneous broadcasting of sound and images, which contributes to the development of skills and abilities of listening comprehension and stimulates trainees' verbal communication, which takes place in the form of expressing one's opinion, attitude, searching for arguments and evidence. Practice shows that the student remembers what he hears and sees five times better than what he only hears.
In order for the process of learning foreign languages through video materials to be effective, systematic and rational use of video in the classroom is necessary. You should also determine the place of video lessons in the training system and the frequency of presentation. In foreign methodological literature it is recommended to use video materials once a week or at least once every two weeks. Lesson duration using video from 45 minutes to 1 hour. Preference is given to short video footage: from 30 seconds to 5-10 minutes, while it is considered that 4-5 minutes, video demonstrations can ensure the group’s hard work for an entire hour. This is due to such a specific feature of video materials, as the density and richness of information. Because of this feature, it is more expedient to use a short excerpt for intensive study than a longer video episode for an extensive one.
Successful use of video is guaranteed at almost all stages of the process of learning a foreign language:
a) for the presentation of language material in a real context
b)to consolidate and train language material in various situations of communication
c) for the development of oral communication skills
d) to teach foreign culture and identify intercultural differences
Videos can be used when teaching all types of speech activity, especially when learning speech perception and speaking, as well as exercises for teaching aspects of the language.
Video helps to formulate and improve hearing and pronunciation skills, both during the training film, which uses phonetic exercises, as well as in the course of watching any other video. While watching an authentic video, phonetic norms are memorized at a subconscious level, attention is also focused on differences in the pronunciation norms of the English and American languages, regional accents and dialects.
According to Leontiev, phonetic exercises using video include:
• demonstration of articulation samples with their subsequent reproduction;
• repetition of individual words, sentences, replicas of the dialogue after the speaker using the "pause" button;
• viewing video clips with simultaneous selection in the text (underlining, circling) words with a given sound; repetition of these words in pauses behind the carrier;
• phonetic mini-lesson in the form of a game;
• recording of the trainees to the speaker, analysis by the teacher in order to show how the features of the articulation affect the pronunciation; comparison of records made at the beginning and end of training;
According to Leontyeva, lexical exercises using the form o are focused on the perception of lexical units in an adequate audiovisual context, which is facilitated by the use of such techniques as:
a) prediction of words, phrases that will be pronounced by video episode characters after a pause, their further actions, deeds, and also the appearance of the character, which the trainees must describe on the basis of the sound row, without seeing it on the screen;
b) recognition, finding (identification) in the video fragment of certain objects, phenomena, actions, color symbols, the names of which are written on the board, including “distracting”;
c) matching the adjectives recorded on the blackboard or on the card with one or another character of the video episode; a list of synonyms with keywords from a video clip;
In teaching grammar, video makes it possible to show how grammar and speech depend on each other, and how grammatical structures are used by native speakers.
Presentation of speech functions and means of their expression are carried out in an adequate context, in various situations of communication and accompanied by the following exercises:
• repetition of different speech patterns, allowing to realize this function in pauses behind the speaker;
• selection of the proposed list of those linguistic means of expression functions that occur in a video clip;
• respond adequately to the situation presented in the video using a “freeze frame”: “What does this character say / can say in this situation”;
The activation of grammatical material will occur in speaking after viewing the fragment. This may include commenting on the film's content, adding situations (for example: restoring a telephone conversation), voicing replicas, composing questions of different kinds to the video content, or for interviews with the main character of the film or the film's director.
With the help of the video you can also develop reading skills, mainly in the process of working on a brief or complete script of the video. To this end, the trainees are offered the following list of tasks:
• reading a brief summary of the content of the fragment and finding while viewing that part that is incorrect is not true;
• prior to the demonstration of a film, the consistent reading of parts of its script in order to extract basic information and prepare for the perception of the film;
With the development of reading skills, working with a video comes down to working on a complete and brief scenario:
• reading before viewing a summary of the content of a video clip and then filling in the gaps with missing words and phrases;
• reading a brief summary of the content of the fragment and finding while viewing that part that is incorrect is not true;
• previous demonstrations of an artistic film, consecutive reading of parts of its script in order to extract basic information and prepare for the perception of the film.
Video can be a good stimulus for both oral and written statements. Given the genre - thematic characteristics of video materials, the following types of tasks can be offered to students:
• writing an imaginary biography of one of the characters in the video episode;
•presentation of the video episode in the form of a letter to a friend;
• compiling a sports browser based on viewing the news release and filling in the table;
• writing a short video ad, a review of a feature film;
• writing a short story based on 10 phrases / words suggested by the teacher in order to predict the plot of the video episode;
Teaching foreign languages in the modern world has a communicative orientation; therefore, video is a unique means for teaching speaking and foreign language communication. The video allows you to teach foreign language communication, taking into account various sociolinguistic factors presented with the help of visual information and in many respects determining the nature of the spoken utterances of communicants, namely: their social status, nature of relationships, spatial and temporal conditions of communication, etc. :
•watching a video clip without sound and answering questions about where the interlocutors are, what are the relationships between them, the differences in status;
•viewing of the video clip by students without sound and determining which of the two dialogues offered on the card (official or unofficial) corresponds to it;
Video also plays an important role in the development of creative skills of unprepared dialogic or monologue speech in students' skills. The impetus for this is the assignments for active viewing of video materials, aimed primarily at developing the skills of perception and understanding of speech by ear. In teaching dialogic speech exercises are used to:
- restoration of the dialogue presented in the video episode, on the basis of individual replicas received by each trainee.
1. It can be noted that the introduction of video in the process of learning foreign languages helps to solve many problems. The video serves as a strong incentive to learn foreign languages. Trainees have the opportunity to apply and expand their knowledge on unfamiliar authentic material. When trainees realize that they are able to understand authentic foreign language speech, they increase their self-esteem and motivation to study the subject.
2. Using video in English classes allows students to develop a language guess and broaden their horizons. They have the opportunity to learn about the history, traditions and customs of the people of the country of the language being studied. When working on a video clip, all four types of communication activities are involved: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The focus is on listening, the most difficult aspect in learning a foreign language. Video support makes the learning process more efficient.
3. Also, the use of video materials in the classroom increases the activity of students. In working with videos, students receive a huge amount of various information, which is very helpful during the subsequent work at the post-observation stage, therefore, video support creates conditions for the independent work of students.
4. It is important to note that the use of video is a very important method for improving the quality of students' knowledge and encourages them to put their knowledge into practice.