Сборник текстов на казахском, русском, английском языках для формирования навыков по видам речевой деятельности обучающихся уровней среднего образования



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The Farmer and His Sons

A rich old farmer, who felt that he had not many days to live, called his sons to his bedside.

"My sons," he said, "Listen what I want to say to you. Somewhere on it is hidden a rich treasure. I do not know the exact spot, but it is in our farm and you must find it. "

The father died. The sons began to dig with all their might, turning up every foot of ground with their spades.

They didn’t find the treasure. But at harvest time they had a rich profit more than their neighbors. They understood that the treasure was not under the ground. Their father wanted to say that they must work hard and be together. It is a big treasure.
The treasure map
Sanjay saw a bottle in the sea. There was something inside it.

He took it out.

“What is it?” asked Sarah.

“It’s a map! It’s a map!”

They looked round and saw a talking parrot.

“Buried treasure! Buried treasure!”

“Wow! A treasure map! Let’s follow it.”

“Maybe it’s gold!”

“Or silver?”

“Or jewels?”

“OK. We are here and the treasure is here.”

“Let’s go! I’ll read.” said the parrot.

“Walk 80 meters north.”

“1, 2, 3…..78, 79, 80.”

“Go through the cave. Mind the bats! Walk straight to the beach.

Go along the beach for 200 meters. The treasure is behind the square rock.”

“Over there! Over there!” Parrot shouted.

“It’s empty!” cried Sarah. Inside there was an old note.

Dear Finder, sorry, but I took my gold. I needed to buy a new pirate ship.

Bye, Captain Redbeard.’

“Well, at least we had a nice walk.” said Sanjay.
Planet Earth
Welcome to the Planet Earth Museum. Here you can learn some interesting facts about our planet.

There are many amazing places on the Earth. Forests are home for the world of animals and plants. Trees clean the air and produce oxygen for us to breathe.

We destroy more than 36 football fields of forests every minute and throw away thousands of trees in paper every day.

The oceans are home to millions of marine animals. A lot of the rubbish we throw to the oceans. Turtles mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and die when they eat them.

Rivers collect rain water and carry it to the oceans. Along the way, plants absorb and clean the water so it is safe for us to drink.

This is a green world and people must respect nature.


Daisy the Doctor
Part I

This is the Doctor Daisy. She is going to the work. Daisy works at the Medical Center. Her job is to help people and to treat them when they are ill.

The waiting room is already full of people when Daisy arrives.

Alice gives Daisy a pile of notes about her patients.

Children can play with toys while they are waiting. Grownups usually prefer to read magazines.
Part II

In her consulting room Daisy check her computer. Daisy’s computer is linked to Alice’s, so she always knows who’s coming to see her.

At nine o’clock exactly, Daisy calls her first patient. He’s a little boy named Isaac Sanchez.

“Poor little Isaac’s been up all night with awful earache,” says his mum.

Daisy checks Isaac’s ears. He is afraid, so daisy shows on his teddy bear. “See, it doesn’t hurt teddy,” she says.

Then she looks inside Isaac’s ear.

“Hmmm…his left ear’s very red,” she says. “He has an infection, so he’ll need some antibiotics.”

Daisy prints out a prescription and sings it.


Part III

Next was a mum with Aruna, a tiny baby and a small boy called Ravi. “We’re here for Aruna’s check-up”, says the mum.

She weighs baby Aruna. She measures Aruna’s body and her head. She listens to her breathing with her stethoscope.

“Aruna’s doing fine,” Daisy tells the mum.


Part IV

Just then, Alice knocks and opens the door from Reception.

“Someone’s had an accident!” she says. “Can you see him?

Daisy hears someone crying. A young boy is holding arm and waiting.

“His … his arm doesn’t stop bleeding,” says his mum.

“What is your name, young man?” asks Daisy.

“A-a-a-lex” sobs the boy.

Daisy examines his arm. “You don’t need to go to hospital. Michael the Nurse can treat it here.”

“I was on… on the yellow swing in the playground,” sobs Alex and I tried to jump off. But I…I landed on a bike – BANG! And it really, really hurt.”

Alex stops crying. Michael the Nurse treats the cut.


Part V

Daisy sees all the patients; At last it’s time to go home.

“I’m exhausted’, she says to Alice. “I haven’t lunch and I’ve got a headache.”

“Maybe you must go to the doctor!” says Alice.

“Goodbye!”

Now Daisy is running home. But she still has a lot more patients to see: a young boy with a cough; a little girl with eczema; a wheezy girl who has asthma…


Weather
The weather is an interesting subject we can always talk about. It often changes and brings cold and heat, sunshine and rain, frost and snow. One day is often unlike the next.

We usually say: “A nice day”, “Not a bad day” or “its nice weather for the time of the year” if we like the weather.

We can say: “It looks like rain”, “it looks like snow” or “It’s bad weather” when the weather is bad.
Seasons
In summer the sun shines, there is no wind and there are clouds in the sky which are blue and beautiful. We can see stars and the moon at night and people like to walk, play outdoor games and sports in the fresh air.

When autumn comes, the days become shorter and colder. It gets dark earlier and often heavy clouds cover the sky bringing rain with them. Sometimes there is heavy rain, so that an umbrella or a raincoat is necessary.

At last frost and snow come. Trees and houses are covered with snow and rivers and lakes with ice. But spring again brings sunshine and warm wind. Sometimes it snows but snow will not remain long, it will melt in the warm sun. Spring will bring bright sunshine, green grass and flowers.
The Little Gingerbread Man
Part I

Once upon a time there was an old woman who loved baking gingerbread. She baked gingerbread cookies, cakes, houses and gingerbread people, all decorated with chocolate and peppermint, caramel candies.

She lived with her husband on a farm at the edge of town. Children liked the sweet spicy smell of gingerbread. They came to see what would be offered that day.

Unfortunately the children gobbled up so fast that the old woman had not time to continue making the batches of gingerbread. Sometimes she suspected little hands because gingerbread pieces and cookies disappeared.


Part II

One day she made a special batch of gingerbread men because they were extra big. Unfortunately for the last gingerbread man she ran out of batter and he was half the size of the others.

She decorated the gingerbread men with care, each having socks, shirt and pants of different colors. When it came to the little gingerbread man she felt sorry for him and gave him more color than the others. "It doesn't matter he's small," she thought, "He'll still be tasty."
The Boys and the Frogs
Some Boys were playing at the edge of a pond. The family of Frogs lived there. The Boys were throwing stones into the pond and the stones skip on top of the water.

The stones were flying thick and fast. The Boys were enjoying themselves very much. But poor Frogs were afraid in the pond.

At last the oldest and bravest Frog put his head out of the water and said "Oh, please, dear children, stop your cruel play! Though it may be fun for you, but it means death to us!"

Always stop to think whether your fun may be the cause of another’s unhappiness.


Jack and the Beanstalk
Part I

Once upon a time there was a boy Jack. He lived with his mother. They were very poor. All they had was a cow.

One morning Jack’s mother told Jack to take their cow to the market. On the way, Jack met a man. He gave Jack some magic beans for the cow.

Jack took the beans and went back home. When Jack’s mother saw the beans she was very angry. She threw the beans out of the window.


Part II

The next morning, Jack looked out of the window. There was a giant beanstalk. He went outside and started to climb the beanstalk.

He climbed up to the sky through the clouds. Jack saw a beautiful castle. He went inside.

Jack heard a voice. “Fee, Fi, Fo, Fum!” Jack ran into a cupboard.

An enormous giant came into the room and sat down. On the table there was a hen and a golden harp.
Part III

“Lay!” said the giant. The hen laid an egg. It was made of gold. “Sing!” said the giant. The harp began to sing. Soon the giant was asleep.

Jack jumped out of the cupboard. He took the hen and the harp. Suddenly, the harp sang, “Help, master!”

The giant woke up and shouted, “Fee, Fi, Fo, Fum!” Jack ran and started climbing down the beanstalk. The giant came down after him.

Jack shouted, “Mother, help!” Jack’s mother took an axe and chopped down the beanstalk. The giant fell and crashed to the ground. Nobody ever saw him again.

With the golden eggs and the magic harp, Jack and his mother lived happily ever after.


Robot Time
One day there was a boy at his house. His name was Jake. He ran to the store to buy milk and food. But it was dark and the clouds were dark blue... It started raining so Jake ran to the store.

Jake bought the milk and food. Then he was running back home. Suddenly he fell in a hole. He found a robot there. It was big and was a black color.

The next day Jake turned him on…The robot took care of Jake and he followed him.

One day, our world was in trouble because a stone was falling 
from the sky. The kid asked the robot to stop it. The robot hit the stone out of this world... And fell back onto the earth!

The next day Jake was walking and he found him!
The Time Machine
There was a scientist. His name was Crazycoco. He created space machine to travel around the world.

He visited the North Pole. There was a lot of snow there.

He visited Africa and looked at the animals.

He visited China and looked at the pandas.

He visited Australia and looked at the kangaroos.

He visited Spain and bull attacked him.


Our colorful World
This is Billy and Splodge. Billy and Splodge are in a spaceship. They are looking for animals in space.

Splodge sees a planet. Everything on this planet is red. Look at this forest. The trees are red and the leaves are red. But there aren’t any animals here.

Splodge sees another planet. Everything on this planet is yellow. Look at the yellow sky and the yellow clouds. There is a yellow volcano too. Look at the yellow smoke! There aren’t any animals here.

Now Splodge sees another planet. Everything on this planet is pink. Look at the pink sea. There are pink shells and pink plants in the sea. There aren’t any animals here.

Splodge sees another planet. It’s planet Earth. The sky is blue and the sun is yellow. The grass is green and the flowers are red and pink.
Space Suit
Here are some interesting facts about space suit. You can read and remember.

After, he can color a space suit and helmet of his own!

A space suit lets astronauts work and live in space. The suit protect from harsh elements. It gives them air to breathe and protects the astronauts’ body from the extreme heat and cold. A suit is like a spaceship. It has lots of parts: air conditioning, heating, air to breathe and water to drink. There’s even a built-in toilet!
Spaceship from Lego bricks
It’s 7 o’clock in the evening. Lucy and Bob have got a new large set of Lego bricks. They go into Bob’s room to make a spaceship. They work hard. It is very interesting for them. In an hour there is a large spaceship with four astronauts on the floor. It’s very nice. The spaceship is white and blue. The astronauts have got red helmets. There are two small flying saucers near the spaceship.

Dad comes into the room. The children are very proud of their work. Dad says, “The spaceship is great! But where is a door?” The door is absent. The astronauts can’t get into the spaceship. Bob is angry. He blames Lucy for it, Lucy blames him.



reading

Ann Can Read and swim
This is Ann. She can read.

“I am Ann. I can read,” said Ann.

“It is sweet that I can read,” she said. Ann can read and read.

“I can swim and swim,” said Ann.

“I wish I could swim in the sea,” she said.

“I should swim in the sea,” said Ann.

“I could swim in the sea,” she said.

“I would swim and swim,” said Ann.


How we look
We are all alike. We all wear clothes. We wear different things. One girl may wear a scarf on her hand. Another may wear a cowboy hat. What do you like to wear? For example people like to wear T-shirt, jeans or shorts and sandals in summer and jacket and sweater, socks, trousers and boots in winter.
Around school
This is Emily’s big day. She is going to school. Emily will learn how to read! Where will Emily Elizabeth sit? She finds her desk. Today they will learn about rain! This is Emily’s big day. She likes to learn. Emily wants to learn about museums!
School days
Yesterday at school I do some math. I do it well. But I can’t do one sum. After a while, I ask one of my friends. He tells me how to do it. It is great to have friends who help you. I like my friends.
Class photos
I study in Modern school in Astana. My school is three storied building. My classroom is on first floor. My classroom is big and bright. It is very clean. Our classroom has 5 lights and one door, three big windows. There is a large black-board. There is a big table and a chair for the teacher. The walls are white and clean. They are decorated with pictures of great people. I like my classroom very much!
My family
I love my family. There are five people in my family. I have one brother and one sister. My brother is seven and my sister is two. My mom and dad make the rules for my family. Our favourite thing is to play games together.
We are all people
We are all alike. We are all people. We are all different, too. We do not look the same. Some people have lighter skin. Some people have darker skin. Every skin color is beautiful color. You can have long hair or short hair. You can have straight hair or curly hair.
Friends
I am Ben. I am a dog. This is Harriet. She is a cat. This is Tom. He is a rat.

We are the best friends. Harriet can run fast. Tom can run fast. I can run fast too.

It is good that we are best of friends.
At the park
Ben is at the park. His dog Sam is at the park too. Ben rides his bike and plays with Sam. Then he goes to the pond to see the ducks. He thinks they are funny! Then they come to their house from the park. Ben lies on the sofa and then he watches the TV.
The beach
I like the beach. You can do a lot of fun things at the beach. I like swimming. We take a beach ball and play in the water. We pick up shells in the sand. I have two sisters, Maggie and Amy. They like to play in the sand. They like to make sandcastles. My brother Mark likes to play in the sand too. He dug a hole and found a crab!
Our body
Body clean is important. Every day you wake up in the morning. Wash your hands and face, brush your teeth. Take a shower twice a week. Change your dirty clothes. Use water, food, exercises. You need to grow strong, healthy person.
Thanksgiving Day
Thanksgiving holiday is on the fourth Thursday of November. Traditional food is turkey. Many families prepare turkey with fried potatoes and sauce. Many people prepare a pie for dessert at the end of the meal. Popular pie tastes like pumpkin, sweet potato and apple.
Three little witches
One little, two little Three little witches

Fly over haystacks,

Fly over ditches,

Slide down the moon

Without any hitches,

Hey-ho! Halloween’s here!


My music
People cannot live without music. They listen to music, dance to music or learn to play musical instruments. There is music everywhere: at home, in a concert hall, in the park, at the seaside, in the forest and even in the street.

Music is not only a combination of pleasant sounds. It is an art which reflects life.


Animals at the zoo
The elephant

It is an elephant. They are big animals. They have a long nose. They make trumpet sound.


The lion

This is the lion. They are brave. They have a hair. The lion is the king of jungle. They can roar.


The monkey

This is the monkey. They sit on the tree. They can jump on the tree. They like fruits, especially bananas. They say eee…eee…eee.


The giraffe

This is the giraffe. It has a very long neck. They are very tall. It can reach the tall tree. They are very quiet animal.


The tiger

This is the tiger. It is big and hunts in the jungle. It can run fast. It goes GRRRRR…


The crocodile

This is a crocodile. They are green. They have a lot of teeth. Their teeth are sharp. They can swim in the water. They rumble RRRRRRR…


The flamingo

This is the flamingo. They are pink. They are beautiful bird. They have long legs. They are very noisy. They say SQUAK…SQUAK…


The rhino

This is the rhino. It is a big animal. It has a horn on his head. They are heavy. They go snort…snort…


The weather
There was Small Cloud’s mother, singing River and her father, Big Sun. One day Singing River called Big Sun. Big Sun smiled and warmed the heart of Singing River. Singing River danced in the warmth. At that time Small Cloud was born. One day she said mother “I want to go over the mountain.” “Yes,” Singing River sighed. Your father, Big Sun, will watch over you.” Whistling Wind blew her across the hot earth. Small Cloud and her friends moved across the sky. Together, they became one great cloud and rain began to fall.
The weather
The weather changes during the year. These changes are called seasons. There are four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In spring lots of animals have babies. Summer begins in June in the north. Leaves fall from the trees in autumn. In some places there is snow in winter. Bears usually sleep in winter. When it is summer in the north, it is winter in the south.
Sea adventures
This is a shark. It is in the sea. It can swim and swim. It is smart. I think it is neat that this shark can swim and is smart. It wants to eat. I think it is neat that it wants to eat.
Helicopter
It is a helicopter. I like helicopters very much. I want to fly a helicopter and travel. I like to fly in the sky. I want to be a pilot.
Types of vehicle
Jake is going on a trip. He and Mom take a taxi to the airport.

“It’s my first plane trip,” he tells the taxi driver.

“That’s great!” the taxi driver says. Jake rolls his suitcase onto the plane. The plane moves faster and faster. Then – Whoosh! In the sky! Cars and houses look like toys.
Numbers and shapes
Shapes are everywhere you look. Everywhere you look there are shapes. Shapes are found in everything. Everything is made up of shapes.

Come on! Let's find shapes!

I see a circle, I see a square

I see a triangle over there

Come on kids; let's draw shapes in the air

SQUARE, TRIANGLE, CIRCLE!

FASTER!

YEAH!
Marco Polo


Marco Polo made his first voyage when he was 17. He went with his father and uncle. He travelled through many places. The journey was long and tough but he did not give up. Marco Polo learned a lot about traveling in unknown lands. He wanted to reach new lands and meet new people.
Rain
Kayla watched as the children ran around in the park. Kayla loved the rain. She smiled happily. More raindrops fell. The children screamed with pleasure. They loved the rain too. Kayla stood up from the bench and danced in the rain. In just a few minutes Kayla was wet, her arms spread out like a newborn butterfly. Parents called for their children to come to them. Kayla stayed in the rain, enjoying her life alone. "Enjoying the rain" Kayla whispered back, knowing the woman couldn't hear her.
At the beach
In summer schoolchildren do not go to school. They have summer holidays which are three months long. Children don't have to get up early. There is no homework to do or lessons to learn. I never stay in bed long in a bright summer morning. Every summer I go to the country to stay with my grandmother for a week or two. I help Granny to work in the kitchen garden or to look after chickens and ducks. In the village I often go for long bike rides with my cousins. Sometimes we go fishing.

I like to go to the beach in the morning when it is not too hot. I swim, sunbathe and play with my friends on the bank of the river. If my uncle is not very busy he takes my cousins and me on a hike in the forest. I like sleeping in a tent, sitting by the fire and singing songs. Summer holidays are never too long for me.


Number games
Choose a friend and send him/her a number and he will reply with something about you in front of that number. Funny right ? It could be a funny thing as well as a game like truth and dare. Only you and the other person to whom you have sent a number knows about it. For example: You sent: #2 Status message of your friend: #2 Like to have you as a friend. Lets meet this Christmas!

This game is not yet known. I will keep you updated with it as and when I get to know it. Till then I am going to send some numbers to my friends and see what they have to say about or for me. 


Flying kites
Kite flying day is my favorite festival. It is also known as Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan. It is on 14th January every year.

We buy colorful kites. Kite is made of light bamboo sticks and thin papers. On the day of Uttarayan people fly kites. It looks very nice and pleasant when kites of various colors fly in the sky.

There is a competition between kite fliers. They try to cut one another kites. Chikki is special sweet for Uttarayan. It is made of Sesame seeds and pea nuts. People greet each other “Happy Sankranti” on this day.

Makar Sankranti is a harvest festival. It is celebrated the arrival of spring season. It is a day of joy for everyone. I like Uttarayan very much.


Day and Night
Part I

There are 24 hours in a day. The day is divided into day (time) and night (-time). Daytime is from sunrise (but we can say 6am) to sunset (we can say 6pm). Night-time is from sunset to sunrise.

Every day starts precisely at midnight. AM (ante-meridiem = before noon) starts just after midnight. PM (post-meridiem=after noon) starts just after midday. This means that 12am and 12pm have no meaning.

The day starts at midnight. The word day can have two meanings:

1. The 24 hours between one midnight and the next.

2. The time between sunrise and sunset (as distinct from night).


https://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/time-day-night.htm
Part II

You probably don’t think much about light and dark. After all, you can turn on a switch and the lights go on. Even in the middle of the night, you can have light.

Two hundred years ago, though, people were very aware of light and dark. They worked during the day when the Sun was shining.As the sun went down, they used candles or oil lamps to see. However, these lights were dim. Outside, there were no street lights. The only light available came from the moon and stars. Night was very, very dark.

People usually went to bed when the sun went down and woke up early.


Times of my day
I am a schoolboy. My lessons start at 8 o'clock, so I get up at 7.

Sometimes I do my morning exercises. I clean my teeth, wash my face. Then I go back to my room, make the bed. I put on my clothes and comb my hair. At a quarter to eight I take my bag and go to school. My school starts at 8 o'clock and I don't like to be late. After each lesson there is a break. When lessons are over I go home.

The teachers give us a lot of homework, so I start doing it about 16.30 or 17.00.

My parents get home about six o'clock. We watch TV, have supper together. After it I help my mother to do some work about the house. At eleven o'clock I go to bed and fall asleep.


Times of my day
I usually have no free time on weekdays that’s why I look forward to my days off. On a day off I don’t have to hurry any-where. I can do whatever I like. On a day off I wake up later than usual, at about 10 o’clock. I don’t get up at once. I like to stay in bed for a while and think about something nice. Then I get up and have breakfast.

I like to have something special for breakfast on such days. In the afternoon I usually play football or basketball with my friends. In fine weather we often go to the country. We find a nice place and sunbathe and play different games in summer or go skiing in winter. In the evening I like to read, listen to the music or play chess with my father.


Our town
Our town is Shakhty. It is beautiful and big. Tourists can visit Lenin Square, the Pushkin Library and the Museum in Shakhty. Children and their parents can spend their spare time in the City Park. There are many cafes in it. They can take various rides in the park. They can walk and play there.

There are many shops in Sovetskaya Street. People can do shopping there. There is a theatre in Shevchenko Street.

I love our town!
Around the house
I'd like to tell you about my house of my dream. Near the front side it has a facade with columns and steps up to the front door. There are also two balconies and a terrace in my house. The windows are in the shape of arches. Through them you can see a wonderful landscape.

There are lots of trees and flowers around the house. And you can walk in the shade of these trees listening to the birds singing. Behind the house there is a swimming bath, covered with glass. There are some plastic armchairs around the swimming bath. Our house looks peaceful and calm and the calmest room is my study. After the house, grow vegetables in our garden and involved in cooking.

Our house is a beautiful place at any time of the year. In winter it's warm and cozy, in summer there is so much to do outside.
Our town
Part I

We live in a very large country. Its regions differ very much. Our Rostov region is in the very South of Russia. It is rather big. It’s bigger than France. There are many cities and towns in Rostov region. But the biggest city is Rostov-on-Don , It’s the centre of Rostov region. Its population is more than a million of People of different nationalities live in Rostov-on-Don. And as a rule different nations live in piece. Now Rostov-on-Don is a big industrial town. There are many plants and factories in it. There are many schools and universities. Rostov is an educational centre in the South of Russia.

My native town Bataysk is not far from Rostov. We may say that it is a part of Rostov.

Part II

I live in a small town. There is a big airport near my town.

There is a huge zoo in my city, children like to go there. I like to go to a park and feed squirrels there.

My town is not very big, there are only two cinemas in my town. There are a few famous buildings in my town. There is a big bridge in my town, we call it Main bridge.



Part III

I live in a small town. It is not modern, there are many old buildings. There is no airport in our town. It is surrounded by many villages. There are a lot of parks and gardens. Citizens go there to take a walk and feed squirrels. There is a big stadium, one theatre and one cinema in my area. I like to take part in some competitions which are held almost every month.


Animal types
A lot of people keep animals at home for pleasure. They are called pets.

The most popular pets are dogs and cats. Some dogs protect their owner’s houses. Cats are not so loyal as dogs, but they can help people, too. They catch mice and rats.

Sometimes people keep exotic animals: snakes, frogs, small crocodiles and even tigers. But it’s not a good idea to keep a snake or a tiger at home because it can be really dangerous.

Every child wants a pet to play with, but animals are not toys. They need everyday care. You must keep their baskets and cages clean, remember to feed them regularly.


Animal types
 Ukraine has trees, such as pine, oak, fir, beech and birch. The wealth of the forest includes not only timber, but also berries, mushrooms and medical herbs. The animal world of Ukraine is different. It has hundreds of species of animals and birds. They are: wolf, fox, badger, deer, hamster, field mouse and so on. The birds are: the sparrow, titmouse, grouse, owl. Some fur animals, such as mink, silver-black fox, musk -rat, brought into Ukraine have well.

The animals include squirrels, foxes, hares and roes. The rivers and lakes are home to ducks, geese, storks and cranes. It should also be said that the animal life of the Carpathians is wonderful. Here you can find deer brown bears, wild cats and pigs, black squirrels. Bird life includes golden eagles and black wood peckers. The plants of this region are also different and beautiful. It is well worth visiting, especially in spring.


Inventions in KZ
New inventions appear every day to make our lives easier, longer, warmer, faster, and so on.

“Inventions associated with ways of cooking of different national food products include kurt, kymiz, shubat , tary , zhent and so on are being actively patented now. Earlier Kazakhs prepared kymiz by hand. At present inventors suggest power-operated devices to mix kymiz. These devices make the process easier and cut production time. The way of cooking of a dry shubat has also been patented.


Music
I love music, I think people cannot live without it. We can hear music everywhere: in the streets, in the shops, on TV, over the radio, in the cars, in the parks, everywhere. A lot of people are fond of music. They buy tapes, go to the concerts and visit Concert Halls, Opera Theatres.

I want to know more and more about popular talented groups and singers I like. Some people go to music schools, they play different musical instruments, sing in the chorus.


Musical instruments
I really wish I could play a musical instrument. I can’t. I had a few music lessons when I was a kid, but I didn’t keep them up. I really regret that now.

Of all the musical instruments, I’d like to play the piano. I think this is the king of musical instruments. It sounds so beautiful. Pianos also look beautiful. I imagine it’s very relaxing playing it.

Another instrument I’d like to play is the guitar. I want to be a rock star, although I’m a bit old now. I suppose it’s never too old though to learn to play something. I haven’t given up hope.

My music
It is difficult to live without music. We hear music everywhere: in the streets, at home, over the radio and on TV, in the shops, in the parks and in the concert halls, at the seaside, sometimes in the forest.  We can't live without music. We like to listen to music, we enjoy dancing to music, we can play musical instruments.

Music is a combination of many sounds. They are short and long, weak and strong. Music reflects people’s mood and emotions.

I like to listen to the songs by our Russian popular singers. They are talented singers and composers, and I like to attend their concerts. My friend Mike is fond of classical music. Sometimes he spends his free time, listening to music by Wolfgang Mozart and other composers.
The Changing World of Communication
Long time ago people used stone tablet to write. The problem was that it was too heavy and couldn't store lots of information.
It was hard to transport the information. The messengers run for 10-18 days to send it to the recipient.

Thousand years after that era, a man invented paper and printing machine. Since then, it's easier to communicate.

Not so long time ago, a genius invented a machine that can produce lots of information instantly in a very short time. This machine
is so revolutionary. Soon after that, lots of new technologies were invented. Now,

millions of information can be stored in a very small chip.

With the help of the Internet, people can share and get the information in a very short time. Millions of texts, videos, music, images and many other modes of communication are produced and accessed every day.
Digital Communication
Samuel Morse sent the first telegraph on May 24, 1844. This revolutionized long distance communication.

Alexander Graham Bell made the first phone call on March 10, 1876.

John Logie Baird transmitted the first television signal October 2, 1995.

My space was created by Chris De Wolfe and Tom Anderson in July 2003. 

Facebook was launched in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg. This replaced Myspace.

Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Evan Williams, Biz Stone and Noah Glass and launched by July 2006.

The first generation iPhone (iPhone 1) was announced January 9, 2007 by Apple Inc.

The iPad was announced by Steve Jobs on January 27, 2010. It was marketed by Apple Inc.
The Olympic Games
The first recorded Olympic competition took place in 776 B.C. The only event was a race the length. Other events were added slowly. The competition was every four years.

Only Greek men could enter. It was a high honor. The winners received crowns of leaves.

The first modern Olympic Games were in Athens, Greece in 1896. Nine countries sent athletes to the Olympic.

There were a few events for women in 1900, but many women didn’t take part till 1960.

There are many traditional and new events in the Olympic Games. The biggest change was the addition of winter sports in 1924.
Sports around the World

An ABC Adventure
Aa

American Football is the most popular played sport in the United States. It was first played on November 6th, 1869 by Princeton and Rutger. It originated from rugby and soccer.

Bb

Bobsleigh is a winter sport that originated in St. Moritz, Switzerland. This sport was first practiced in the 1870’s with teams of two or four trying to make it down a slope in the least possible time.



Cc

Cricket was first played in southern England and became England’s national sport in the 18th century. Cricket is one of the sports with the longest playing time because it can take several days for a team to win the match.

Dd

This first time anyone was seen playing gold with a flying disk was in 926 in Bladworth, Saskatchewan, Canada. It started with Roland Gibson and his friends throwing tin plates at targets such as tree and poles.



Ee

Endurance Riding is an equestrian sport most popular in the UK and USA, but it is an international sport practiced word-wide. The average race is 50 to 100 miles and horses are required to have veterinary stops at every check point. 

Ff

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Football is the world's most popular sport. As of January 2013, there are 207 international teams! The largest soccer tournament is called the World Cup and it is held every four years. 

Gg


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Gymnastics was originally created as a form of exercise for boys and young men in the late 18th century in Liege, Belgium. Gymnastics was created by three physical education pioneers from Germany. 

Hh

Century old carvings on Egyptian walls show that Hockey has been around for a long time. There are several types of hockey, including: Ice Hockey and Field Hockey that are mostly played in Canada and the US. 



Ii

Ice Climbing began in Italy, England, and Germany. It is considered an Alpine sport since it is a form of regular rock climbing. Ice Climbing is very technical and requires extensive training and safety equipment. 

Jj

Jujutsu or Jujitsu is a form of Japanese martial arts. This requires precise movements and no weapons. It was originally created among the samurai of feudal Japan to defeat armed enemies. 



Kk 

Kayaking originated in Alaska when explorers from around the world discovered North America. The word "kayak" comes from the Alaskan Eskimo. The most common modern competitive kayaking race is called Slalom Kayaking where competitors race downstream at high speeds passing through pole gates. 

Ll

Longboarding, also known as "sidewalk surfing", originated in Hawaii and it has become very popular in the islands. The idea of long-boarding was actually a result of surfers needing to train even when the tide was too low or too rough. The sidewalks and roads mimic some of the movements of the waves. 



Mm

Mountaineering originated in France when for the first time, a person successfully descended from Mont Blanc in 1786. Since then, mountaineering has spread rapidly around European and African countries. The largest mountain range is conquered where the Himalayas in Central Asia. 

Nn

Knee-boarding originated off the pure creativity of south Californian surfers. In 1965, they used homemade knee boards to tie them to boats and take joy rides. 



Oo

Orienteering is a sport that originated in Sweden as a way of training the military in land navigation. In Swedish, the word for orienteering means "the crossing of unknown land with the aid of a map and a compass."

Pp

Polo was first played in Iran but has then spread to other parts of the world such as South Asia and Britain. The horses used in polo are chosen based on quick bursts of speed, stamina, agility and maneuverability 



Qq

Quidditch was first seen in a book series, later turned movie, called Harry Potter. The sport consists of two teams of seven players riding flying broomsticks, using four balls called the Quaffle, two Bludgers, and the Golden Snitch. There are six elevated ring-shaped goals, three on each side of the Quidditch pitch. 

Rr

Rugby was an English sport played long before American football. It was first played in public schools. There are two types of rugby: rugby league and rugby union. Although they are both similar, they each are played differently. 



Ss

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Surfing is a popular sport that can be seen almost anywhere where you can find a beach. Although surfing developed in several places at the same time, it is most accredited to Peru. Inhabitants of Trujillo, Peru rode boats called "caballitos de totora."

Tt

Team Penning is an equestrian sport that developed in Ventura County, California. It started as common ranch work of separating cattle into pens for doctoring while riding a horse. 



Uu

Uni-cycling is practiced competitively in the mountain ranges of the United States. Unicycles where first made in the 19th century. Since then, there have been over 30 different types of uni-cycling races. 

Vv

Volleyball is a very common and popular sport worldwide that was first played is Massachusetts, USA. It began as a mix of tennis and handball, and it was called "Mintonette."



Ww

Water-polo was among the first team sports introduced at the Olympic games in 1900. The first ever recorded game was in Bournemouth, England and it consisted of a mix of football and soccer. 

Xx

Xare is a racket sport that originated with the ancient Greeks. Xare is a form of "Basque ball." It can be played in teams, in doubles, or individually. 



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Yy

Yagli Gures, also known as oil or grease wrestling, is the Turkish national sport. Here, wrestle while covered in olive oil. Every year since 1365, Turkey has held their annual matches during the summer. 



Zz

Zip-lining is very popular in areas such as Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Florida. The first time anyone attempted to use zip lines was in a remote place in China to cross bridges. 



Sports and Games
Many of you play such games as volleyball or football, basketball or tennis.

People who play a game are players. Players from other teams are their opponents. Two players playing with each other are partners. Each team can lose or win.

Most matches take place in a large stadium.

Athletics is the most popular sport. People call it “the queen of all sport”. It comprises such kinds of sports as: running (for different distance), jumping (long and high jumps) and others.

From time to time international championship and races (horse-races, motor-races and cycle-races) take places. Representatives of various countries can win a gold, silver or bronze medal. Such great championships in sport are organized every four years and we call them Olympic Games. Only the best may take part in them.
The First Marathon
In 490 B.C. there was a big war between the Persians and the Greeks.

Persia was a huge empire and bigger than Greece.

There were 48000 Persian soldiers and only 10000 Greek soldiers.

The Greek sent a messenger to Sparta for help. The messenger ran two days over the mountains.

But the Spartans could not fight until there was full moon. The messenger returned the Marathon alone.

The Greek attacked the Persian army and won. The messenger ran 40 kilometers to Athens to tell that they won.

He arrived at the city very tired. “We won!” he shouted. Then he died.

From this time the marathon race was in the modern Olympic Games. It was 1896. It was won by a Greek runner, Spiridon Louis. He also was a postman.


The History of Baseball
Baseball was first played in England in 1700. In 1830 baseball became a popular sport across the country. Baseball clubs in New York united the first official league. Stadiums were built and fans could watch their favorite teams play. In 1947, Jackie Robinson became the first African-American player.

Today baseball is one of the nation’s most popular sports. It often called “America’s pastime”.


The rabbit and the tortoise
Once upon a time there was a rabbit and a tortoise. They were good friends. They meet and play every day. The rabbit always said that he could run faster than the tortoise. So they decided to have a race. They chose a start and finish point. The rabbit ran really fast. The tortoise was behind. So the rabbit stopped under a tree. But the tortoise didn’t stop. So the tortoise won the race.
Sport and Games
Sport is important for. There are a lot of interesting spots and games. I know basketball, volleyball, football, tennis, swimming, skating and skiing. I like swimming and skiing very much. In summer I swim in the river. In winter I ski in the forest. I like to play football most of all. I usually play football with my friend.
Pirate’s Treasure
“Ten steps from the porch and twenty steps from the rose bushes,” growled Bluebeard in Jimmy’s dream one night. “Treasure is there!”

The next day Jimmy began to dig. He dug until the hole was deep. He kept digging. The hole got deeper and the dirt pile got higher. He dug until the hole was deepest and dirt pile was at its highest. He sighed. “I’m too tired. I can’t dig anymore.” Then he spied something… but it was only one of Woofy’s bones. Instead of treasure, all Jimmy found a dog bone. He thought “That pirate lied to me!”

But when Jimmy’s mother saw the hole, she clasped her hands and smiled.

“Oh, thank you, Jimmy. I always wanted a rhododendron bush planted just there. Here’s $5.00 for digging that hole.”


Surprise from Australia
The school ends and Erica quickly puts her books in the bag and runs out of the class. Today is a special day. She runs home and thinks about her uncle. He returns from Australia. He brings a special surprise for her! She is thinking about the surprise. “May be it is a surfboard? Or maybe it is Australian nuts? Oh, maybe he brings a kangaroo?”

Erica arrives home. “Uncle, uncle! What a special surprise?” “Well, I have for you an Australian aunt!” he smiled.


On the farm
Last summer Lucy and Bob were on his grandad’s farm. Grandad has got a lot of hens. One day he gave one egg to Diana, a little cousin of Bob and Lucy. She said to Bob, “I have a great plan. I’ll keep it in my pocket and soon it’ll be a chicken.”

“And what are you going to do with a chicken?” asked Bob.

“The chicken will become a hen. The hen will give more eggs. The chickens will become hens. The hens will give more eggs and I’ll sell them. I’ll be rich. I’ll buy a beautiful doll and a house for doll!” said Diana.

“How clever of you! You are a good businessman,” said Bob.

Suddenly Diana dropped the egg. How sad poor Diana was. But that was a lesson. Never count your chickens before they are hatched.
Health is Wealth
Part I

Once upon a time, there lived a generous and kind-hearted king. But the people weren’t happy with their king. The king was lazy.

He spent days and weeks and months in his bed eating something or sleeping. He almost became inactive. The king became a potato couch. The people started to worry about the king. One day he realized that he couldn’t move his body. He became very fat.

He invited doctors from various parts of his country. Unfortunately no one could help the king.


Part II

One fine morning, a holy man (Rishi) visited the region of the King. He heard about the ill-health of the king and told the minister to meet him at his place. When the minister met him, he informed the minister that he could easily cure the king. The minister became very happy.


Part III

The holy man resided at a distant place. The fatty king asked the minister to come near, but the holy man refused. Then he ordered to come to meet him. 

After strenuous efforts, the king met the holy man. The holy man encouraged him and said he was good and very soon the king would gain his health. He asked the king to come for treatment every day from the next day. Also the holy man told the king that he would treat the king only if he came on foot to his place.
Part IV

The King was unable to walk even a few steps on the road, but he reached the holy man’s place. Unfortunately, the holy man was not at home and the king came the next day for treatment.

This was repeated for two weeks and the king never met the holy man. He never had any treatment. Suddenly, the king realized that he felt lighter, lost weight and felt more active than before. He realized the reason why the holy man asked him to reach his place by walking.

Very soon, the king regained his health, and the people were very happy in his kingdom.

The King had a lot of wealth, but no amount of wealth could make him healthy.

Health is Wealth!


Some Strong Animals Need Your Help

The tiger
The tiger is a beautiful animal.  It has orange, black and white. Many people see tigers only in a zoo, but they live mostly in Asia.

Sadly, many people like to kill the tigers, and now they may all die. In some places, people think that tiger’s parts can be used for medicine. People pay lots of money for tiger claws.  Tigers are very strong, but they are endangered.
Gorillas
Gorillas are also beautiful animals that are very strong. They have black hair on their body, and they love their babies.

However, many of them are killed for their meat and for medicine. Many gorillas die every year. They are endangered.
The Rhinoceros
The Rhinoceros is also a beautiful and strong animal. It has horns made of ivory. These great animals can be found in Africa. 

Sadly, many people kill them for their ivory horns. Many people see them as medicine. People also like to make things with the ivory. These animals are endangered because of this.  

Here is a statue made of ivory.  It is very beautiful, strong and smooth. However, a rhinoceros had to die for this.  
The Villager the Spectacles
There was a villager. He was illiterate. He couldn’t read and write. He often saw that people wear spectacles for reading. He thought, “If I have spectacles, I can read. I must go to town and buy spectacles.”

So one day he went to a town. He entered a spectacles shop and asked the spectacles. The shopkeeper gave him several spectacles and a book. But he could not read anything. The shopkeeper said, “Perhaps you can’t read.” The villager said, “No, I don’t. I want to buy spectacles so that I can read like others.” The shopkeeper explained “Spectacles don’t help to read or write. They only help you to see well. First of all you must learn to read and write.”


Laughter is the best medicine
Once there lived a grumpy king. He never laughed and didn’t allow anyone to laugh.

One day, a small boy couldn't control his laughter. He was scared of the punishment and he thought of a plan. He wrote a funny story and converted it into a drama. Then he went to the palace and asked the king, "May I present my drama to you?" the king let him do it. Then the boy started the play. In the end, he came to the funniest part of the story. The king laughed. The king then allowed everybody to laugh. Everyone then lived happily.


Doctor Croaky
One day a frog left his pond hopped to a next lake. He went to the forest to make his new home there. He wanted to make new friends. So the frog climbed a high rock and said, “Friends, please come here. I am new here. I want to meet all of you. I have come from the village.”

Many animals heard his voice and came to the lake. The deer, the tortoise, the duck, the rabbit, the birds, the squirrel, the butterfly and the fox came there.

The frog said, “Let me introduce myself. I am Dr. Croaky. I am a doctor who can help you. I have medicines for all animals’ diseases.”

The fox said, “If you are a doctor why haven’t you cured your lame legs? You are hopping all the time.”

All the animals and birds laughed at the frog. The frog went red with shame for his lie.
The magic window
Part I

Once upon a time there was a little boy who became very ill. He spent all day in bed. He suffered greatly because other children couldn’t come near him. He spent his days feeling sad. He looked out of the window. Time passed and his feeling of despair just grew.


Part II

One day he saw a strange shape in the window. It was a penguin eating a sausage sandwich. The penguin said "good afternoon" to the boy turned around and went. Of course, the boy was very surprised. He was trying to understand it. Then outside his window he saw a monkey in a nappy, busy blowing up a balloon. At first the boy asked himself that could possibly be, but after a while, he began to laugh and found it hard to stop. Then he saw a pig playing a tambourine, an elephant jumping on a trampoline or a dog wearing a pair of glasses and talking about politics. The little boy didn't tell anyone about this because who would have believed him? His health had improved so much that he was able to go back to school again.


Part III

In school he talked to his friends and told them all the strange things on the window. While he was talking to his best friend he saw something sticking out of his friend's school bag. The boy asked his friend what it was. He was surprised. There were all the fancy-dress suits and disguises that his best friend had been using to try to cheer the little boy up! And from that day the little boy always did his best to make sure that no one felt sad and alone.


Care of Healthy
You must care your health. Good health helps you to study well. At home your parents control your health. At school the school-doctor controls your health. She always helps you. The doctor has her consulting-room in the school. Every pupil has a medical inspection twice a year, at the beginning and at the end. Doctors and parents give you advice.
At the Doctor
It is winter now. It is often cold. Suddenly I fall ill. I have a high temperature. I have a running nose and a sore throat. Also I have a headache and a cough.

My mother tells me to stay in bed and then she calls for a doctor. The doctor comes. He examines my lungs and takes my temperature. He says that is flu. He writes a prescription. I follow all the doctor's instructions. Soon I feel much better. In 10 days I recover and come to school.


The thermometer
We can use a thermometer to find out how cold or hot it is outside. Some kinds of thermometers have a glass tube with liquid inside.

When the air around the tube gets warmer, the liquid moves up inside the tube.

When the air around the tube gets colder, the liquid moves down inside the tube.

The numbers on the thermometer show how cold or hot it is outside.


Is it Hot or Cold?
Some places get cold in winter. When the number on the thermometer is -20 people wear warm clothes. Some places get warm in the spring. When the number on the thermometer is +20 some people may plant flowers in their garden. Some places get hot in summer. When the number on the thermometer is +30 some people may go swimming. Some places get cool in the fall. When the number on the thermometer is -10 some people may rake leaves.
The Wind and the Sun
The Wind and the Sun argued.

“I am stronger than you,” said the Wind.

“No, you are not,” said the Sun.

Just at that moment they saw a traveler. He had a shawl. The Sun and the Wind agreed that whoever could separate the traveler from his shawl was stronger.The Wind took the first turn. He blew to tear the traveler’s shawl from his shoulders. But the harder he blew, the tighter the traveler gripped the shawl. The Wind’s turn was over.

Now it was the Sun’s turn. The Sun smiled warmly. The traveler felt the warmth. The Sun’s smile grew hotter and hotter. Now he took it off. The Sun was declared stronger than the Wind.
Never be ungrateful
It was summer. The sun was extremely hot. Two travelers were going along a dusty road. There were no trees along its sides.

Suddenly they saw a tree with big leaves and branches. It was like an umbrella. They sat in the cool shade of the tree. After taking some rest, one traveler said to the other, "What a useless tree it is! It has no fruits at all." Hearing this, the tree burst out, “You ungrateful soul! On one hand, you are in my cool shade and you are calling me useless. Get up and leave the place immediately!”


The First Snow Storm
Little Harry was born in a warm place. Flowers bloomed all the year round. The sun shone all the time.

When Harry was six years old his parents took a journey to New York.

In this city the weather grew cold. The sky was gray.

Harry was watching the cars through the window. Suddenly something white fell slowly down. Then it disappeared.

Harry was surprised when he touched it. It was so cold. He took some up in his hand, but in a moment it was only a drop of water.

Harry ran to his mamma and asked. She told him it was snow.


Seasons
There are four seasons in a year. They are: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Winter is a very cold season. There is usually much snow in winter. In spring the trees become green and birds sing. In summer it is hot. Summer is my favourite season. In autumn the weather is usually rainy. Schoolchildren go to school in September.
The legend about Tolagai
There is a mountain called Tolagai in Kokpekty. It is like a large upside down bowl.

The hunter Sartan and his wife Aisulu had a boy. They named him Tolagai. He grew very fast, so in a short period of time he became a real batyr. He was very handsome and strong.

Once there was great drought in the Kazak steppe. People couldn't find a drop of water. So Tolagai wanted to save people. He heard about the land Tarbagatai. There was much water and rain. Soon he found this land. He liked it very much. He saw a high mountain and took it with him.

He was going day and night. At last he reached his Motherland. Suddenly there was a lightening in the sky and it began raining. All the rivers were filled with fresh water. All people were glad and happy. They thanked the batyr. But Tolagai couldn't answer them because he was tired very much.

And since that the mountain has been called Tolagai.
Legend about dombra
In ancient times two brothers-giants lived in the Altai highlands. The younger brother had dombra and he loved to play it. He forgot about everything in the world when he began to play dombra. The elder brother was proud and vain. Once he wanted to become famous. He decided to build a bridge. He began to gather stones. And the younger brother continued to play dombra.

So the days went by. The younger brother did not help. The elder brother was angry. He broke it against the rock. The music stopped, but on the stone the stamp remained. Many years passed. People found this stamp and began to make new dombras and the music sounded again.


Walt Disney and his heroes
Walt Disney was born in Chicago. He liked to draw. In 1923 he went to Hollywood with his brother Roy. In Hollywood they were producing a series of cartoon films.

In 1927 he had some success with the series called “Oswald the Lucky Rabbit”. In 1928 he achieved lasting success with “Mickey Mouse”. Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Minnie, Pluto became a household word.

In 1955 he opened “Disney-land”, a huge amusement park in southern California. Disneyland is situated 27 miles south of Los Angeles.

The park is divided into six themes and there is so much to see and do.

Walt Disney died in California at the age of 65. His works have given so much pleasure people, young and old, in many countries.
The Ants and the Grasshoppers
Part I

One summer a grasshopper met some ants. They were working very hard. He couldn't believe how hard they were working. “They must have fun in summer?!” he thought. So he asked them, "Why are you working so hard all summer long, you must have fun, making music and dancing!"

The ants replied, "We are working hard to gather food and shelter for winter. Then we will rest and play all warm in our ant hill. You must prepare for the long winter."

"That's no fun! I want to play and dance and make music all summer long!" said the Grasshopper and went.


Part II

So the summer passed and autumn came. The family of Ants was drying the grain.

The Grasshopper came along. He began making fun of the ants. "You're still working but I’m playing all summer long - you ants are so boring!" And he went again, playing his fiddle and dancing merrily along.
Part III

Soon winter came and the wind whistled and the snow fell. The ants were snug in their ant hill. The ants were surprised to see the Grasshopper! He was hungry and freezing. "Please, can you give me some food?" he said.

"What!" cried the Ants, "didn’t you store anything away for winter?"

"I was so busy making music didn’t know the summer went." whined the Grasshopper.

The Ants were angry for his laziness but had pity on him.

"We will share our home and food with you but you must play your fiddle and dance for us through the long winter."

The Grasshopper thankfully agreed and learned that next summer he must work before he plays.
Legend about the origin of the lake Burabay (Borovoe)
God created the earth, people and nations. Also God created round mountains, lakes and rivers.

But only the Kazakhs got the endless steppe. Then the steppe people begged and asked something else from God. The Creator looked in the sack where he kept nature sights. There were some mountains, several beautiful forests, several cool rivers and lakes. But they were the best. God took out the remains from his sack and the most beautiful lake in the world – Burabay appeared. It is known as the lake Borovoe – “Kazakh Switzerland”.


The farmer and his sons
A farmer had five sons. They were strong and hardworking. But they always quarreled. The farmer didn’t like it. He wanted them to live in peace. The farmer always thought what to do.

One day he found an answer. So he called all his sons.

He showed them a bundle of sticks and said, “I want you to break these sticks without separating them from the bundle.”

Five sons tried one by one. They used their full strength. But they couldn’t. Then the old man separated the sticks and gave them to break. They broke the sticks easily.

The farmer said, “A single stick is weak. It is strong in a bundle. Likewise, you can be strong together.”
Birbal the wise
One day, a rich merchant came to Birbal.

He said to Birbal, “I have seven servants in my house. One of them has stolen my bag of precious pearls. Please find out the thief.”

So Birbal went to the rich man’s house. He called all the seven servants in a room. He gave a stick to each one of them.

Then he said, “These are magic sticks. Just now all these sticks are equal in length. Keep them with you and return tomorrow. If there is a thief in the house, his stick will grow an inch longer by tomorrow.”

The servant who had stolen the bag of pearls was scared. He thought, “If I cut a piece of one inch from my stick, I won’t be caught.” The next day Birbal collected the sticks from the servants. He found that one servant’s stick was short by an inch. Birbal pointed his finger at him and said, “Here is the thief.”
Jealous goat
A goat and a donkey live on the same farm. The farmer feeds the donkey very well, because the donkey works hard. The farmer gives the goat less food, because the goat doesn’t work. The goat becomes jealous. He thinks if the donkey stops to work, the farmer gives the goat more food. So he pushes the donkey into a large hole. The vet examines the donkey. “The quickest way to make better,” he said, “is to give the donkey the goat’s soup.” Now the goat must be a food for the donkey.
The First Robot
There was once a man named Joey. He dreamed to create the first robot. So Joey wanted to become a mechanical engineer.

He attended the University of Engineering. Joey finished and now he is an engineer. He built the first robot.

Every day he wakes up, eats breakfast and goes to work.  He spends his day in his high tech computer designing various items for companies.

Mechanical engineering is very important to society because just about everything that is made or designed goes through a mechanical engineer.
Personal Computers
At 7:00 A.M. my personal computer wakes me up. As I slowly get out of bed I say “mail, please”. It tells me I have two bills to play and a letter to read. Actually, I ask my computer to read the letter with the command “read letter”.

Next, I go to the kitchen. There’s milk in the refrigerator, but I need eggs and bread. So, I go back to my computer and say, “grocery order: eggs and bread”.

Do you think that I am describing the future? You are right. Personal computer will do it in the near future. Already, automatic bill payment is replacing payments by cash.

People accustomed to computers and think they can’t live without them.




All about Fast Cars
Most fast cars have a smooth look. This helps them go faster. The wind won’t slow them down. The wind goes over the smooth car.

Some fast cars have special tires. These tires don’t get too hot in a race.

Fast cars have a stronger engine.

Fast cars go faster because their weigh is small. Fast race cars have no extra part that is why they are lighter.

Some of the fastest cars can go 2550 and 260 and 270 miles per hour on the road!

There are many different types of racing cars. Races go in different places. Some are done on tracks, roads and dirt.


Space Adventure
Part I

We were ready to lift off our space ship and explore our galaxy. I called my friends. Space has no oxygen, so we cannot breathe unless we have the suits. Then we lifted off, once we exited the atmosphere on the moon and took pictures. The aliens were really nice.

Then we left the moon and went towards mars. It is the fourth planet in our solar system. It was really hot and dusty. It was so dusty and I couldn't breathe. We couldn't stand the dust, so we left. 
Part II Jupiter

Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. The large spot on the planet is a huge storm. It is known as the gas giant. We decided to go straight through the planet. It was really hard to see in the thick clouds. Our computer calculated the planet consists of 90% hydrogen and 9.99% helium.
Part III Saturn

Saturn is a very cool planet. It has really nice rings around it. Those rings are made of chunks of ice and small amounts of carbonaceous dust. This planet was really cool in my opinion. We flew around its rings were amazed with the beauty of the planet. After a few hours we left towards Uranus. 
Part IV Uranus

Uranus is like an ice giant. It is the coldest planet in the solar system. We ice skated on the patches of ice. When we exited the planet we saw a few alien spaceships. They seemed very nice and offered us gasoline because we needed more gasoline for the spaceship. After that we took a break to eat. We ate Pizza and vegetables, and drank soda.
Part V Neptune

Neptune is the last planet in the Solar System. It is the smallest of the ice giants. It is extremely cold and impossible for us to land on. We were getting ready to leave until we saw on our GPS a small thing which looked like Pluto. So we decided to go to it. 
Part VI Pluto

Pluto was a planet in our solar system but not anymore. It is too small. It was extremely cold. Its surface was mostly all ice with a bit of rocks. We were able to land on Pluto and collect some samples of its ground. We left the dwarf planet and made our way back home. It was an amazing and fun trip.

The Sun
The Sun is in the middle of the Solar System. The Sun is a star. It is the closest star to the Earth. We could not live without the Sun. We need its heat and light to live.

The Sun
The sun is a star. Stars are balls of very hot gas. As the gas burns it makes light and heat. Plants and animals need this light and heat to live on the Earth. The sun is the biggest part of our Solar System. It is very important.
The Cold Planet
Part I

Far from Earth there is a small planet, Fliptune. It is dark and cold, far from the sun, behind a much bigger planet.

Little green aliens live there. They use torches to see.

One day, a young alien, Neila, put the wrong batteries in her torch.

Suddenly, there was a dazzling beam of light. It went up into the sky, around the sun, and hit planet Earth.

The light hit a boy called Billy and his dog, Splodge. Neila quickly turned the torch off, but it was late.


Part II

They landed near Neila.

“Wow!” said Billy. “Everything’s made of ice cream!”

“Nobody eats it. It’s too cold here,” said Neila.

Neila looked sad. “Can you help us?” she said. “We need sunshine.”

“Can you get us home? I have an idea.” said Billy.

She got her touch and put the wrong batteries again. ZOOOOOOOOM! Billy and Splodge were on the Earth.

Billy pointed his bedroom mirror between the sun and Fliptune. The sun’s rays reached Neila’s planet.

Fliptune is not cold any more. Splodge moves the mirror each day. Now, Neila and her friends sit in the sun and enjoy all that ice cream.

2. Texts in english for basic school
Reading for pleasure

Good morning, Miss Dove
After Frances Gray Patton

Miss Dove was a strict teacher. If a pupil wanted to leave the classroom to get a drink of water, Miss Dove just looked at him and said nothing. They were afraid of that look and they called her ‘the terrible Miss Dove’ though she never shouted at them or scolded them.

On that day forty children were sitting in her class at the geography lesson. They heard the bell, but they did not move, they did not talk, they all waited in silence and looked at Miss Dove. Only after she had told them to close their books and go, did they the classroom quietly without shouting or running. A boy who had talked during the lesson was left in the room and had to write twenty times ‘I must not talk during the lessons’.

The next lesson began. The pupils came into the classroom and took their places. Miss Dove gave them written work to do, because it was Tuesday, and on Tuesdays they always had some written work.

One of the boys pushed the girl who was sitting next to him. Miss Dove looked at him, and he stopped moving though she did not scold him. Miss Dove looked at the boy but she did not see him. Instead of him she saw his elder brother, Thomas Baker, who had sat in that place some six or seven years before. The war had brought the children she had taught to different parts of the world. One was in Germany, another in the jungle of New Guinea, a third one somewhere in Africa. She did not know where all of them were. Though all of them had finished school many years before, she now saw them as they had been at seven, at ten, at twelve.

The pupil she thought about most often was Thomas Baker. The German planes had bombed his ship, and for many days he had lain on a raft without anything to eat and very little to drink. When they found him, he was almost dying. The newspapers wrote much about him in those days.

Randy Baker put his hand up.

“Yes, Baker?” Miss Dove asked.

“I got a letter from Tom yesterday,” the boy explained. “May I read it to the class?”

“Yes, certainly.”

“But it’s a long one”.

“I’m sure it will be useful for everyone to hear the letter of such a brave man,” explained the teacher.

Randy looked around and began to read. Tom told his younger brother what he had seen from the plane in which he was brought back to England. He wrote that the land below looked like the map they had used at the geography lessons at school. Then he wrote how he had suffered on the raft with almost no water to drink. “Do you know who I was thinking about then? It wasn’t a boy or a girl,” he explained. “I was thinking about Miss Dove, and out there in the open ocean I played a game. No, I am not joking. And it helped me to stay alive. I imagined that I was back again in the geography class; I remembered the look Miss Dove gave us when we wanted to leave the classroom for a drink of water. So I imagined that I was at her lesson and kept thinking all the time: ‘The bell will go in a few minutes. You can wait a little longer. You must wait for the bell.’ And it made everything easier. It was almost as difficult there in the ocean as it had been at school. Tell that to the boys, will you?”

Randy stopped suddenly.

“Is that all?” Miss Dove asked.

“No,” said Randy. His face became very red. “It says here: ‘Please thank Miss Dove and give her a kiss for me’.”

Miss Dove went up to the boy.

“Well, Randy,” she said. “I’m waiting.”

In the silence that followed little Randy kissed ‘the terrible Miss Dove’. Nobody in the class laughed or even joked about it; everybody was silent except one girl who suddenly spoke.

“It’s like a medal,” she said. “It’s just like a medal he has given to Miss Dove.”


Joe and His London Taxi
Sometimes people ask me, “What is the strangest thing that has ever happened to you, as a taxi driver, something typical of England?” It’s difficult to answer. But one of the strangest things that ever happened to me was during the great fog1.

Foreigners always think that Britain is nothing but fog every winter from October to March. It’s not like that really. But in November and December of that year we did have some rather bad fog in England.

The first night the fog came down very suddenly. I was driving someone from Piccadilly to Richmond. I took my usual short-cut2 through Richmond Park. It’s a lovely place with big trees, lakes and herds of deer3. At week-ends people go there for picnics, and every evening men go there to run. To run? Yes, to run. Running for health is rather popular nowadays.

Well, we met a group of those men, running through the park.

“Not my favourite sport,” I said to my passenger.

I left my passenger at her house and drove back to London. I turned into Richmond Park again. I soon realized that it was a mistake. The fog was really thick4. The further I drove into the park, the thicker the fog became. I turned on my head-lights. It didn’t help much.

Suddenly I saw something standing on the road in front of me. I braked and stopped. The figure moved away. It was a deer, I was sure. Then I saw another figure on the road, but it was a strange deer. It stood there in the light of my fog lamp … wearing shorts, a white shirt and running shoes. It was one of those runners. I stopped and opened my window. The man put his head in.

“Terribly sorry!” he said. “We’re lost!”

“Jump in!” I said. “Haven’t I seen you here before?”

“There are 15 of us here!” he added.

“Oh. Well, you’d better not jump in then,” I said. Now I could see the others – strange figures in the fog, jumping up and down, now on one foot now on the other, to keep warm5.

“Follow me,” I told them. “I’ll drive slowly – I know the way out of the park.” So I drove at a ‘slow run’ for about half an hour. At last we came to the way out of the park – the runners were safe now.


Our world

Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets. The Earth is the only planet in our solar system not to be named after a Greek or Roman deity. The Earth was formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago and is the only known planet to support life.

Facts About The Earth:

-The Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing.

This deceleration is happening almost imperceptibly, at approximately 17 milliseconds per hundred years, although the rate at which it occurs is not perfectly uniform. This has the effect of lengthening our days, but it happens so slowly that it could be as much as 140 million years before the length of a day will have increased to 25 hours.

-The Earth was once believed to be the centre of the universe.

Due to the apparent movements of the Sun and planets in relation to their viewpoint, ancient scientists insisted that the Earth remained static, whilst other celestial bodies travelled in circular orbits around it. Eventually, the view that the Sun was at the centre of the universe was postulated by Copernicus, though this is also not the case.

-Earth has a powerful magnetic field.

This phenomenon is caused by the nickel-iron core of the planet, coupled with its rapid rotation. This field protects the Earth from the effects of solar wind.

-There is only one natural satellite of the planet Earth.

As a percentage of the size of the body it orbits, the Moon is the largest satellite of any planet in our solar system. In real terms, however, it is only the fifth largest natural satellite.

-Earth is the only planet not named after a god.

The other seven planets in our solar system are all named after Roman gods or goddesses. Although only Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were named during ancient times, because they were visible to the naked eye, the Roman method of naming planets was retained after the discovery of Uranus and Neptune.

-The Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System.

This varies according to the part of the planet; for example, the metallic core is denser than the crust. The average density of the Earth is approximately 5.52 grams per cubic centimetre.


Daily life and Shopping

Shopping
Shopping has common elements wherever it takes place. A buyer looks for a seller who is offering something the buyer wants or needs at a price the buyer can afford to pay.

Sellers often advertise their wares in newspapers, on the radio or TV, on posters etc. Sellers use a variety of tactics to induce buyers to purchase from them at a price which leaves some profit.

Shopping is a part of our daily life. And we have to deal with it whether we like it or not. There are people who hate going shopping. So they make a list of what they need and run through stores buying the needed things.

Sometimes they even don't care about the price. And there are people who go from store to store looking for goods of better quality and lower price. Those don't worry about the time they spend shopping.

But there is a very good service called Postal Market. It really helps you to save your time and get goods of high quality. You just have to look through a catalogue, choose the things you like, order them and wait a little to get them.

Vocabulary:

common — общий

buyer — покупатель

seller — продавец

price — цена

purchase — покупка

Postal Market — товары почтой

catalogue — каталог
Entertainment and Media

Mass media
Mass media are one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization. People are united into one global community with the help of mass media. People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass media. The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio and television.

The earliest kind of mass media was newspaper. The first newspaper was Roman handwritten newssheet called «Acta Diurna» started in 59 B.C. Magazines appeared in 1700's. They developed from newspapers and booksellers' catalogs. Radio and TV appeared only in 20th century.

The most exciting and entertaining kind of mass media is television. It brings moving pictures and sounds directly to people's homes. So one can see events in faraway places just sitting in his or her chair.

Radio is widespread for its portability. It means that radios can easily be carried around. People like listening to the radio on the beach or picnic, while driving a car or just walking down the street. The main kind of radio entertainment is music.

Newspapers can present and comment on the news in much detail in comparison to radio and TV newscasts. Newspapers can cover much more events and news.

Magazines do not focus on daily, rapidly changing events. They provide more profound analysis of events of preceeding week. Magazines are designed to be kept for a longer time so they have cover and binding and are printed on better paper.

Vocabulary:

feature — черта

mass media — средства массовой информации

handwritten — написанный от руки

newssheet — листовка

bookseller — книготорговец

entertaining — развлекательный

portability — портативность

newcast — обзор новостей

to focus — сосредоточиваться

profound — глубокий

cover — обложка

binding — переплет
Newspaper
Newspaper is a publication that presents and comments on the news. Newspapers play an important role in shaping public opinion and informing people of current events.

The first newspapers were probably handwritten news-sheets posted in public places. The earliest daily newssheet was «Acta Diurna» («Daily Events») which started in Rome in 59 B.C. The first printed newspaper was Chinese publication called «Dibao» («Ti-pao») started in A.D.700's.*It was printed from carved wooden blocks, The first regularly published newspaper in Europe was «Avisa Relation» or «Zeitung», started in Germany in 1609.

Newspapers have certain advantages over other mass media — magazines, TV and radio. Newspaper can cover more news and in much detail than TV or radio newscast can do. Magazines focus on major national and international events of the preceeding week. But newspaper focuses on local news as well and provides information and comments faster than magazine can do.

There are about 1700 daily and 7500 weekly newspapers in the US. The circulation of some weeklies is no more than a few hundred of copies per issue and the circulation of some dailies is over a million of copies.

There are daily newspapers and weekly newspapers. Daily newspapers print world, national and local news. Many dailies are morning papers, others are afternoon papers. Sunday issues of the dailies are usually larger than the weekday ones. They may include special sections on such topics as entertainment, finance and travel or Sunday magazine, a guide to TV programmes, coloured comics. The major dailies in the US are «Christian Science Monitor», «New York Times», «USA Today» , «Wall Street Journal», «Washington Post».

Weekly newspapers serve usually for smaller areas. They are printed in small communities where people know each other and are interested in activities of their friends and neighbours. Weeklies report of weddings, births, deaths and news of local business and politics. Most weeklies do not print world or national news.

Vocabulary:

publication — издание

public opinion — общественное мнение

current events — текущие события

handwritten — написанный от руки

newssheet — листовка

to post — вывешивать

printed — печатный

carved wooden block — резная деревянная доска

to publish — издавать

advantage — преимущество

to cover — осветить

newscast — обзор новостей

preceeding week — прошлая неделя

to provide — предоставлять

daily — ежедневное издание

weekly — еженедельник

circulation — тираж

issue — выпуск

weekday — будний день

section — раздел

guide to TV program — программа передач

community — община

wedding — свадьба


Magazines
Magazine is one of the major mass media. Magazine is a collection of articles and stories. Usually magazines also contain illustrations.

The earliest magazines developed from newspapers and booksellers catalogs. Such catalogs first appeared during the 1600's in France. In the 1700's pamphlets published at regular intervals appeared in England and America. They were literary publications. One of the first British magazines «The Gentleman's Magazine» was published from 1731 to 1914. The first American magazine was called the «American Magazine », or «A Monthly View».

Magazines provide information on a wide range of topics such as business, culture, hobbies, medicine, religion, science, and sports. Some magazines entertain their readers with fiction, poetry, photography or articles about TV, or movie stars.

Magazines are designed to be kept for a longer time in comparison to newspapers and that is "why they are printed on better paper and have covers. Magazines, unlike newspapers, do not focus on daily, rapidly changing events.

There are specialized magazines intended for special business, industrial and professional groups, and consumer magazines intended for general public. There are several kinds of consumer magazines.

Children's magazines contain stories, jokes, articles on subjects especially interesting for children and instructions for making games or useful items.

Hobby magazines are intended for collectors of coins, stamps, and other items; people interested in certain sports or games; photography enthusiasts.

Intellectual magazines provide analysis of current cultural and political events. Many of them publish fiction and poetry as well.

Men's magazines focus on such topics as adventure, entertainment, men's fashion and sports.

Women's magazines deal with child-raising, fashion trends, romance. They offer ideas on cooking and home decorating. Many of the monthlies with big circulations are women's magazines.

Vocabulary:

magazine — журнал

mass media — средства массовой информации

article — статья

story—рассказ

pamphlet — брошюра

publication — издание

topic — тема

to entertain — развлекать

fiction — художественное произведение

poetry — поэзия

cover — обложка

to focus — сосредоточиваться

rapidly — быстро

to be intended — предназначаться

consumer magazines — массовые журналы

collector — коллекционер

coin — монета

stamp — почтовая марка

photography enthusiast — фотолюбитель

current — текущий

event — событие

adventure — приключение

fashion — мода

child-raising — воспитание детей

fashion trends — тенденции в моде

monthly — ежемесячное издание

circulation — тираж


Television
Television, also called TV, is one of our most important means of communication. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of homes.

The name «Television» comes from Greek word meaning «far», and a Latin word meaning «to see», so the word «television» means «to see far».

About three-fourths of the 1500 TV stations in the US are commercial stations. They sell advertising time to pay for their operating costs and to make profit. The rest are public stations, which are nonprofit organizations.

Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs because they must attract larger number of viewers in order to sell advertising time at high prices. These programs include light dramas called situation comedies; action-packed dramas about life of detectives, police officers, lawyers and doctors; shows featuring comedians, dancers and singers; movies; quiz shows; soap operas; cartoons. Commercial TV broadcasts also documentaries and talk shows. Documentary is dramatic, but nonfictional presentation of information. It can be programs about people, animals in faraway places or programs on such issues as alcoholism, drug abuse, racial prejudice. On talk shows a host interviews politicians, TV and movie stars, athletes, authors. There are also sport programs and brief summaries of local, national and international news. Advertising is an important part of commercial TV. Commercials appear between and during most programs. They urge viewers to buy different kinds of products — from dog food to hair spray, and from cars to insurance policies.

Public television focuses mainly on education and culture. There are programs on wide range of subjects — from physics and literature to cooking and yoga. Public TV also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies as well as programs about art and history. Public TV attracts less viewers than commercial TV.

Vocabulary:

moving pictures — движущееся изображение

Greek — греческий

Latin — латинский

commercial station — коммерческая станция

advertising time — рекламное эфирное время

operating costs — издержки

profit — прибыль

public station — общественные станции

to broadcast — передавать

entertainment — развлечение

to attract — привлекать

viewer — зритель

drama — телеспектакль

situation comedy — комедия ситуаций

action-packed — полный событий

lawyer — адвокат

comedian — актер-комик

quiz show — викторина

cartoon — мультипликационный фильм

documentary — документальная передача

talk show — ток-шоу

issue — проблема, вопрос

drug abuse — наркомания

racial prejudice — расовые предрассудки

host — ведущий

to interview — брать интервью

athlet — спортсмен

summary — обзор

advertising — реклама

commercial — рекламный ролик

to urge — убеждать

to focus— сосредоточиваться

play — пьеса

art — искусство


Radio
Radio is one of the most important means of communication. The most widespread and familiar use of radio is broadcasting. Radio broadcasts feature music, news, interviews, discussions, descriptions of sports events, advertising. People wake up to clock radios and listen to radio driving a car. They also spend much of their free time hearing their favourite programs on radio.

Radio broadcasting once had the same entertainment role as television has today. From the 1920’s to the early 1950s, in the Golden Age of Broadcasting, people gathered around their radios every night. They listened to dramas, light comedies, music, and other programs. This period ended with the rise of television.

There are more than 25 000 radio stations and more than 1 750 millions of radios in the world. A major reason for the widespread use of radio is its portability. It means that a radio can be carried around easily. People like to listen to it in homes, at beaches and picnics, while walking down the street or driving a car.

About 90% of all radio programs in the US provide entertainment and only 10% provide some kind of information. Music is the chief kind of radio entertainment. Usually, stations specialize in one kind of music such as rock, classical, country, etc. Such stations have disc jockeys who introduce and comment on the music.

Programs that provide information include newscasts, talk shows, and descriptions of sport events. Newscasts may include weather forecasts, traffic reports, stock market information. Talk shows present discussions on a current political topics such as an election or government policy or on a social issue, such as crime, pollution, poverty, racism, or sexism. Each show has a host or hostess who leads the discussion. Listeners are invited to telephone the stations to ask question or give their opinion about the topic. Most of the games played by major league baseball, basketball and hockey teams in the US and Canada are broadcast on radio.
Sport, Health and Exercise

Sports
Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It has been developing with the developing and growth of the mankind. All over the world people of different ages are very fond of sports and games.

Sport not only helps people to become strong and to develop physically but also makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. It makes for a healthy mind in a healthy body. Sports help people to keep in good health.

We all need to exercise. Even if you don't plan to make a career in sport you still have to practice. Regular exercises give you more energy. That is why many people who suffer from general tiredness should take more exercise than more rest.

Exercise makes you feel and look better.

The best exercise is one which involves in repeated movements, those are: walking, jogging or swimming. Bending and stretching will add flexibility and feeling of lightness.

Among the sports popular in our country are football, basketball, swimming, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, gymnastics, figure skating. A person can choose sports and games for any season, for any taste.

Vocabulary:

humanity — человечество

activity — деятельность

to make for — способствовать

health — здоровье

to exercise — упражняться

tiredness — усталость

flexibility — гибкость


The natural world

Nature
Do you know what is the most important in people’s life? This is of course nature. When we are small and when we grow up a bit we often pick up flowers, tree branches without thinking of the efforts applied to grow this or that tree or flower up.

How beautiful and rich our nature is!

In spring the first flowers – snow-drops – appear and buds grow on trees as if making first steps towards summer. Almost everyone here, where I live, have a garden or a kitchen-garden where colorful and aromatic flowers grow. When autumn comes the leaves on the trees grow yellow – it’s the time of golden autumn. There are many poems written about this time of the year. But the time of autumn is the Indian summer. And despite it is rather short it brings happiness to people, because it is a spell of the warmest and the nicest days with warm spells in winter when the sun shines when air is not too freezing.

There are special organizations in our country that try to preserve nature and protect it. It proves that there are not only people who can harm nature but also try to help it. In fact each of us must take care of the nature of the place where we live and never allow anyone and oneself to mock at it. The sacred duty of all people living on Earth is to take care of the beauty and unique shape of their mother land.

Man is closely attached to nature since the ancient times. In pagan times man worshipped it making sacrifices to it, because nature has been the main and the only provider of all living creatures. In our century – the time of progress – people’s attitude to nature has changed. People believe they are above nature they don’t respect it, never think what they’ll do if there’d be no nature – there’d be no people. For everything is connected in the world. Our nature, our environment is not only beautiful and rich, it is also defenseless and needs our protection from those who, without realizing it, try to adapt nature to their interests, destroying its unity. If we look back at people’s relations with nature we shall notice how merciless and thoughtless people sometimes try to take everything away from nature, without thinking that the resources of nature are not limitless. The time may come when there’ll be nothing to take. It’s not man who rules nature but nature that rules man. But nature is not so merciless as man, it gives chance to man to change and to repent.

It is widely known that one can watch fire and water without stop. And you, have you ever watched the flower to open its petals early in the morning? You’ve got to simply wake up early in the morning and you’ll see this magical moment. If you really love nature you’ll be struck by its beauty and you won’t want this to stop.

Have you ever observed hills and mountains? Their majesty and pride strike, their light attracts and the peaks lure you, as if promising boundless happiness. The clear waters of river make us to believe in mermaids and nixes. And a field of cornflowers and camomiles? Imagine a huge basket of camomiles or a field of camomiles white up to the horizon. You’d want to run along it and feel the aroma of the field, the warm wave of summer wind.

A thunderstorm. Such a thunderstorm that windowpanes are squeaking and it sends shivers down your spine. The raindrops are heavy and it seems that rain would never stop. And when it stops you’ll feel the relief of the heaven. Then the sun appears, bright and shining, which beckons you to play, which promises you to warm you and caress you with its rays. It promises never again to hide itself behind the clouds.

A mighty oak calls you to relax in its shade, under its big and powerful branches, where it is so cool and cosy that you feel at home and you’ll never forget this bounty.

If you look around you would see that there are only a few places untouched and wonderful natural places left. They have preserved their natural and innocent form and they’d never been broken. Red Book shows us an uneasy picture: the diversity of the animal and the plant world goes down day by day. So many species of plants and animals disappeared and their loss is irreplaceable for mankind. With the loss of one link in the chain of life on the Earth the whole chain may fail. The negative impact of humankind on nature has increased so much that there’s literally no clear air to breath.

So, our first and foremost duty is to safeguard our nature. As a Little Prince said: «When you wake up, wash you face put yourself in order – do the same with your planet».
Travel and transport

Travelling
People began to travel ages ago. The very first travellers were explorers who went on trips to find wealth, fame or something else.

Their journeys were very dangerous-but still people keep on going to the unknown lands.

Nowadays it is not as dangerous and much more convenient. Do you want to go somewhere? Hundreds of companies are there to help you. They will take care about your tickets and make all the reservations needed.

You don't speak the language of the country you go to? There are interpreters that will help you.

With modern services you can go around the world. You can choose the means of transport you like: plane, train, ship, bicycle or you can travel hiking.

Tourism became a very profitable business because people are ready to spend their money for the great opportunity to have a great time learning about new countries, going sightseeing, resting and enjoying themselves.

Vocabulary:

to travel — путешествовать

journey — путешествие

dangerous — опасный

ticket — билет

train — поезд

bicycle — велосипед

profitable — доходный

to go sightseeing — осматривать достопримечательности

to enjoy — наслаждаться


Food and Drink

Meals in Britain
Traditionally English people have three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. Breakfast is served in the morning. It used to be a large meal with cereal, eggs and bacon, sausages, tomatoes. But such a large breakfast takes a long time to prepare and is not very healthy. Nowadays, Britain's most popular breakfast consists of cereal, toast with marmalade, juice and yogurt with a cup of tea or coffee.

Lunch is a light meal. Most people have no time to go back home for lunch so they eat at school, cafes, pubs or restaurants.

The main meal is dinner, which is usually between 6 and 7 p.m. A typical evening meal is a meat dish with vegetables and dessert.

The most important meal of the week is the Sunday dinner, which is usually eaten at 1 p.m. The traditional Sunday dish used to be roast beef, but nowadays pork, chicken or lamb are more common.

On Sunday evenings people have supper or high tea. The famous British afternoon tea is becoming rare, except at weekends.

Vocabulary:

meal — еда

cereal — овсянка, кукурузные хлопья

to prepare — готовить

to consist — состоять

light — легкий

lamb — баранина


The world of work

Getting a Job
Getting a job is a very hard period in the life of most people. Companies choose an employee from hundreds of candidates according to special rules, that is why there are special "typical" factors, influencing on employers choice. Among such factors are: age, sex, experience, family background and marital status, personality and references.

If you are to go to an interview tomorrow, sleep well before it and do not forget your CV at home - is the basic rule. Moreover, there are some recommendations, which can help you. For example, read annual report, or a newspaper of the company to show your understanding of the corporate strategy on the interview. What is more, you should choose corresponding dress code for the interview. Even such advices are to help you make a good impression; some companies do not want to hire a man, who follows every advice. To illustrate this, I can quote Artemiy Lebedev, the most famous Russian web-designer: "If you enclose a standard stupid resume, written by the rules of American bureaucracy, we would delete it immediately after receiving. If your CV is composed according to all rules, we would not choose you, as we might think, that your profession is to acquire a job".

After getting a job, you may have some unexpected troubles with boss, too: e.g. if you dye your hair or wear something not appropriate. The best solution of such situation is to ask a trade union for advice, which can always help you in your fight with an employer. Of course, if you affect company discipline not coming in time or working badly, your dismissal would not be unfair.

To conclude, I can say that it is sometimes hard not only to get a job, but also to work in the staff, and if you do not want to be laid off, you should follow company rules, it is a must.


Hobbies and Qualities

My Hobby
Tastes differ. Different people like different things, different people have different hobbies.

I go in for sports, I like to play tennis. I go to play tennis every day. Sport is very important part of our life. Many people go in for sports, they jogging, walking, swimming, skating, skiing, train themselves in clubs and different sections.

Physical training is an important subject at school. Pupils play volleyball, football, basketball. I have been playing tennis for 5 years. Tennis became very popular now. I take part in different competitions.

To be in a good shape I'm jogging every morning and do my morning exercises. Everyone should do all he can to stay healthy and choose the sport he is interested in. I do not understand people who say that they like sport, but they only watch sport on TV.

If one goes in for sports he feels much better, looks much better, sleeps much better. Your physical appearance will change too. You will be slimmer and trimmer. And what is even more important you will not get sick often.

Why do I go in for sports? Because I think that it is very important for a man to be strong and well-built. Sport is not for weak, because, you have to learn how to lose, and it's not easy. My favourite proverb says: "A sound mind in sound body".

Vocabulary:

to jog — бегать

to skating — кататься на коньках

to skiing — кататься на лыжах

competition — соревнование

shape — форма

health — здоровье

slim — стройный

trim — в хорошей форме

weak — слабый

to lose — проигрывать
Appearance and Manners
When we speak about somebody’s figure, face, hands, feet we mean his or her appearance. A person may be tall, middle-sized or short, thin or plump. A face may be round, oval or square. In summer some people may have freckles on their faces. Old people have wrinkled faces.

People’s hair may be long or shot, thin or thick, good or bad, straight or curly. If it is long it is often plaited.

Its colour may be black or fair, chestnut or red. Old people have grey hair.

Eyes may be large or small. They may be of different colour, grey, green, black, or hazel (brown).

Cheeks may be rosy or pale (if a person is ill), plump or hollow (if a person is very Ш). Some people have dimples in their cheeks when they smile.

Women usually have their hair done at the hairdresser’s.

The manner of walking is called the walk (gait). One’s step may be: light, heavy, firm. Old people often shuffle their feet, have a shuffling gait.
Exercise and Sport

Sports in Great Britain
The British are known to be great sports-lovers, so when they are neither playing, nor watching games, they like to talk about them. Many of the games we play now have come from Britain.

One of the most British games is cricket. It is often played in schools, colleges, universities and by club teams all over the country. Summer isn't summer without cricket. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behaviour. When they consider anything unfair, they sometimes say: "That isn't cricket."

But as almost everywhere else in the world, the game which attracts the greatest attention is Association football, or soccer. Every Saturday from late August till the beginning of May, large crowds of people support their favourite sides in football grounds. True fans will travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play. There are plenty of professional and amateur soccer clubs all over Britain. International football matches and the Cup Finals take place at Wembley.

Rugby football is also very popular, but it is played mainly by amateurs.

Next to football, the chief spectator sport in British life is horse-racing. A lot of people are interested in the races and risk money on the horse which they think will win. The Derby is perhaps the most famous single sporting event in the whole world.

Britain is also famous for motor-car racing, dog-racing, boat-racing, and even races for donkeys. The famous boat-race between the teams of Oxford and Cambridge attracts large crowds of people.

A great number of people play and watch tennis. Tennis tournaments at Wimbledon are known all over the world. The innumerable tennis courts of Britain are occupied by people between the ages of 16 and 60 who show every degree of skill – from practically helpless to the extremely able.

The British also like to play golf, baseball, hockey, grass-hockey. Various forms of athletics, such as running, jumping, swimming, boxing are also popular. You can sometimes hear that there are no winter sports in England. Of course the English weather is not always cold enough to ski, skate, or toboggan, but winter is a good season for hunting and fishing. Indeed, sport in one form or another is an essential part of daily life in Britain.


Earth and our place in it

The Earth is our home
The Earth is our home. What sort of home it is depends on how we treat it, just as the houses we live in depend on how we take care of them.

Do you like to fish or swim? Do you like to walk through the woods? Do you like to breathe fresh air? Or to watch birds and hear them sing?

If you do, we'll have to treat our Earth home in a different way. Why? Because we are making lakes and rivers too dirty for fish to live in or for people to swim in.

Because we're cutting down our forests too fast, we are spoiling the nature.

Because we're making so much smoke, dirty air often hides the sky and even nearby things. The dirty air makes it hard for us to breathe, and it can cause illness, and even death.

Because we're putting so much poison on the things birds eat, they are finding it hard to live.

Have you seen smoke pouring out of tall factory chimneys? Have you smelled the gas fumes from the back of a bus? Have you noticed the smoke from a jet plane taking off?

All of these things make the air dirty — they pollute it. In crowded cities thousands of automobiles and factories may add tons of poison to the atmosphere each day.

Have you wondered where the sewage from one house, many houses, a big city goes? It pollutes rivers and lakes and may even make them die. Fish can't live in them, and you can't swim in them.

Have you wondered where the wood for houses comes from? And the paper for books and newspapers? From our forests. And what does the land look like when the trees are gone?

Have you thought where the poison goes that we spray on gardens and grass to kill insects and weeds? Onto the things the birds eat, making it hard for them to live and share with us their beautiful colours and songs.

Have you seen piles of old cars and old refrigerators? Not very nice to look at, are they? Have you seen piles of old boxes, glass jars, and cans? Not very beautiful, are they?

If we don't do anything about this spoiling of the world around us — its air, its water, its land, and its life — our lives are not going to be so nice. But there is much that we can do.

Factories can clean their smoke. Cars and planes can be made so that their fumes do not add to the pollution.

The dirty water from factories can be made clean. Sewage, too, can be changed so that water is clean enough to use again. Fish can live again, and you can swim again in oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes.

The mountains can still be covered with forests if the cutting of trees is done with care. We must plant again where we have cut. And we can have enough wood for houses and paper for books.

There is no need to throw away things we do not want or cannot use any more. We can change many things back into what they were made of, and use them again. Old newspapers can become new paper. Old glass jars can be turned into new glass. Old iron can help to make new cars and refrigerators.

We can also learn not to litter. We all know the sign: DO NOT LITTER. But not everyone does what the sign says.

For a long time, people have used their Earth home without thinking of what was happening to it. Now we see that we must treat it better if it is to be a nice home. It can be.
Charities and Conflict

What is a charity?
A charity is a voluntary organization which is set up in order to do good. Charities aim not only to help and support people but also animals, the environment, etc. In size they range from small, local organizations (which provide support on a local basis and are usually staffed by unpaid volunteers drawn from the immediate area) to large, international organizations who have salaried professionals working for them as well as a global network of volunteers. Such organizations provide support on an international basis and deal with global problems.

Charities have a variety of roles in the world today covering almost every aspect of human life. They provide food, medicine, bandages, prosthetic limbs, vaccination programmes, neo-natal care, water, irrigation systems, school-teachers, shelters, blankets, shoes, clothing and much, much more. They work hard to raise public awareness of the problems faced by many people in the world today and to raise money to meet the basic requirements of those in need. Many charities also respond promptly in disaster situations, sending emergency supplies to the worst-hit areas with impressive speed.

Other charities work in less dramatic surroundings, quietly looking after the elderly and infirm, supporting the terminally ill and caring for the depressed, suicidal and the mentally ill.

Charities concerned with animals and the environment are actively involved in rescuing and caring for abandoned, abused or over-worked animals, protecting wild animals and their habitats and lobbying the relevant authorities in order to get governmental policies (and national and international laws) changed for the good of the planet and its flora and fauna.



In the past, charities, voluntary organizations and religious organizations were the main (if not the only) providers of social services in the local, national and global community. However, things began to change with the dawning of the 20th century. Many governments in developed countries began to take on more responsibility for society’s problems: the ‘Welfare State’ had arrived. Governments instigated welfare programmes in which healthcare, education and housing became more and more available to the poorest elements of society. People needed to rely less and less on charitable foundations. Nowadays, countries with highly developed and efficiently-run welfare states have fewer home-grown
Traditions and Language

Customs and Traditions
There are many customs and traditions in England. And I would like to tell you about some of them. First tradition is called "Wrong side of the bed". When people are bad tempered we say that they must have got out of bed on the wrong side. Originally, it was meant quite literally. People believe that the way they rose in the morning affected their behaivor throughout the day. The wrong side of the bed was the left side. The left always was linked with evil. The second custom is called "Blowing out the candles". The custom of having candles on birthday cakes goes back to the ancient Greeks. Worshippers of Artemis, goddess of the moon and hunting, used to place honey cakes on the altars of her temples on her birthday. The cakes were round like the full moon. This custom was next recorded in the middle ages when German peasants lit tapers on birthday cakes, the number lit indicating the person's age, plus an extra one to represent the light of life. From earliest days burning tapers had been endued with mystical significance and it was believed that when blown out they had the power to grant a secret wish and ensure a happy year ahead. And the last tradition I would like to tell you is called "The 5th of November". On the 5th of November in almost every town and village in England you will see fireburning, fireworks, cracking and lighting up the sky. You will see too small groups of children pulling round in a homemade cart, a figure that looks something like a man but consists of an old suit of clothes, stuffed with straw. The children will sing: "Remember, remember the 5th of November, Gun powder, treason and plot". And they will ask passers-by for "a penny for the Guy. But the children with "the Guy" are not likely to know who or what day they are celebrating. They have done this more or less every 5th of November since 1605. At that time James the First was on the throne. He was hated with many people especialy the Roman catholics against whom many sever laws had been passed. A number of catholics chief of whom was Robert Catesby determined to kill the King and his ministers by blowing up the house of Parliament with gunpowder. To help them in this they got Guy Fawkes, a soldier of fortune, who would do the actual work. The day fixed for attempt was the 5th of November, the day on which the Parliament was to open. But one of the consperators had several friends in the parliament and he didn't want them to die. So he wrote a letter to Lord Monteagle begging him to make some excuse to be absent from parliament if he valued his life. Lord Monteagle took the letter hurriedly to the King. Guards were sent at once to examine the cellars of the house of Parliament. And there they found Guy Fawkes about to fire a trail of gunpowder.He was tortured and hanged, Catesby was killed, resisting arrest in his own house. In memory of that day bonfires are still lighted, fireworks shoot across the November sky and figures of Guy Fawkes are burnt in the streets.
English is the Language of Communication
«Do you speak English?» — with this phrase begins the conversation between two people, that speak different languages and want to find a common language.

It's very good when you hear: «Yes, I do», and start talking. People of different countries and nations have to get along well with the progress in world trade and technology as well as with each other.

So it is very useful to learn foreign languages. Knowledge of foreign languages helps us to develop friendship and understanding among people.

English is very popular now. It's the language of computers, science, business, sport and politics. It's spoken all over the world. It is the official language of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States of America, Canada, Australia. There are more than 750 million speakers of English in the world.

Speaking a foreign language you can read papers, magazines and original books by great writers, watch satellite TV programs.

If you like travelling you can go anywhere without being afraid that other people will not understand you. English is very important to find a good job.

Vocabulary:

conversation — разговор

common — общий

world trade — мировая торговля

to get along with — ладить, уживаться

foreign — иностранный

to develop — развивать(ся)

science — наука

satellite — спутник

to be afraid — бояться


The English Language
English is spoken practically all over the world. It is spoken as the mother tongue in Great Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. A lot of people speak English in China, Japan, India, Africa and other countries- It is one of 6 official languages of the United Nations. It is studied as a foreign language in many schools.

England's history helps to understand the present condition of English. Many English words were borrowed from the language of Angles and Saxons» Hundreds of French words came into English. These French words didn't crowd out corresponding Anglo-Saxon words. There exist «act» and «deed», «beautiful» and «pretty», «form» and «shape».

Many new words were brought by traders and travellers. These words came from all parts of the worlds «umbrella» — from Italian, «skates» —from Dutch» «tea» —from Chinese» «cigar» — from Spanish.

Some words came into English directly from Latin, which was the language of the church and the universities in the Middle Ages.

Some of the English words of today are derivatives. One way of creating new words is to put together two or more older English words. For example» the words «railway», «football», «newspaper» are made in this way.

Many of the new English words — especially new scientific ones — have been made from Latin and Greek words instead of English ones. «Telephone» for instance, was made from Greek words «far» and «talk».

Vocabulary:

mother tongue — родной язык

United Nations — Организация Объединенных Наций

to borrow — заимствовать

Angles and Saxons — англы и саксы

to crowd out — вытеснять

to exist — существовать

trader — купец

directly — непосредственно

derivative — производное слово


Music and Film

Visit to the Cinema
Once I read an article about various kinds of entertainment. According to it TV, radio and cinema have made great changes in the entertainments with which people fill their free time.

There was a time when people knew what to do to enjoy themselves: they played games, sang, played musical instruments, went out shooting.

Nowadays we can get entertained by the TV, the radio, the theatre or the cinema. Cinema is available no matter where you live. You can always find the film you like among horror films, thrillers, westerns, detective, love, musical films or comedies.

Not so long ago most people used to visit cinema every week. Often cinema houses were overcrowded. But at present video production has flooded the market and cinema became less popular.

I don’t go often to the cinema and my friends are not regular cinema-goers either. But if there is a film, which is a hit with the public, I do my best to watch it. The last film I saw was Hollywood remake of Shakespeare’s «Romeo and Juliet». The action takes place in the modern world but all the rest is just tike great Shakespeare had described: people, action, feelings. The original text was used in the film. And I have to mention that the music was great. I think the actors and the actresses did their best and looked great. I’ll remember the film for a long time.
Music in Our Life
I love music, I think people can not live without it. The first thing I do in the morning I switch on my tape — recorder.

We can hear music everywhere: in the streets, in the shops, on TV, over the radio, in the cars, in the parks, everywhere. I think it's really doesn't matter what kind of music you prefer: rock, pop, classical, jazz. A lot of people are fond of music. They buy tapes, go to the concerts, visit Concert Halls and Opera Theatres.

I enjoy listening music because it reflects my moods and emotions. Very often when I'm blue, I play my favourite merry songs and feel much better.

Sometimes I attend music halls and the concerts, when popular groups and singers are there. I like watching music programs on TV. I like to know more and more about popular talented groups and singers I like.

One wall of my room is covered with posters of "Bon Jovi", "Scorpions", "Roxette", Russian singers Agutin, Sjutkin, Linda and others. Some people go to musics schools, they play different musical instruments, sing in the chorus, try to compose music.

Unfortunately there are so many ungifted singers on the stages, that it makes me sad. To have a good producer doesn't mean to have good ears and voice. I think that only talented people can claim to be singers.

Vocabulary:

to switch on — включать

tape-recorder — магнитофон

to reflect — отражать

mood — настроение

to attend — посещать

to cover — покрывать

poster — плакат

to compose — сочинять

ungifted — бездарный

stage — сцена
Travel and Tourism

Travelling
Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It's always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.

Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun.

Most travellers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them — the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds.

Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had.

People travel by train, by plane, by boat and by car.

All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.

If we are fond of travelling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes.


Science and Technology

Great Inventions
Television (1920s). The invention that swept the world and changed leisure habits for countless millions was pioneered by Scottish-born electrical engineer John Logie Baird. It had been realized for some time that light could be converted into electrical impulses, making it possible to transmit such impulses over a distance and then reconvert them into light.

Motor Car (Late 19th Century). With television, the car is probably the most widely used and most useful of all leisure-inspired inventions. German engineer Karl Benz produced the first petroldriven car in 1885 and the British motor industry started in 1896. Henry Ford was the first to use assembly line production for his Model Т car in 1908. Like them or hate them, cars have given people great freedom of travel.

Electricity. The name came from the Greek word for amber and was coined by Elizabeth I's physician William Gilbert who was among those who noticed that amber had the power to attract light objects after being rubbed. In the 19th century such great names as Michael Faraday, Humphry Davy, Alessandro Volta and Andre Marie Ampere all did vital work on electricity.

Photography (Early 19th Century). Leonardo da Vinci had described the camera obscura photographic principle as early as 1515. But it was not until 1835 that Frenchman Louis Daguerre produced camera photography. The system was gradually refined over the years, to the joy of happy snappers and the despair of those who had to wade through friends' endless holiday pictures.

Telephone (1876). Edinburgh-born scientist Alexander Graham Bell patented his invention of the telephone in 1876. The following year, the great American inventor Thomas Edison produced the first working telephone. With telephones soon becoming rapidly available, the days of letter-writing became numbered.

Computer (20th Century). The computer has been another life-transforming invention. British mathematician Charles Babbage designed a form of computer in the mid-1830s, but it was not until more than a century later that theory was put into practice. Now, a whole generation has grown up with calculators, windows, icons, computer games and word processors, and the Internet and e-mail have transformed communication and information.

Aeroplane. The plane was the invention that helped shrink the world and brought distant lands within easy reach of ordinary people. The invention of the petrol engine made flight feasible and the American Wright brothers made the first flight in 1903.
3. Texts in english on computer science for high school
Networking Troubleshooting
People often call IT professionals about network connection problems. But many problems are easy to fix without help. First, reconnect any loose CAT-5 cable connections. Next, investigate IP address issues. This group of numbers allows communication on the Internet. Renewing your DHCP fixes most IP problems. Next, check the router. The router links LANs to the Internet. Make sure the router’s configuration is correct. WLANs have other problems. Interference often blocks their wireless signals. But there is a simple solution. Just move the router away from walls and metals. Finally, cycle the network. Turn all equipment off for a full minute and then restart.
IT Professional: Hi. Can I help you find something?

Customer: Oh, please. I need a router.

IT Professional: Well, there are two types. What kind of network do you have?

Customer: I don’t have one yet, but it’s for the computers in my home.

IT Professional: Do you want a LAN or a WLAN? Some routers don’t support both types.

Customer: What’s the difference?

IT Professional: A WLAN connects computers wirelessly. A LAN connects computers with CAT-5 cables.

Customer: My computers are far apart I’d need a WLAN.


The Digital Divide
A recent survey has shown that the number of people in the United Kingdom who do not intend to get internet access has risen. These people, who are known as 'net refuseniks', make up 44% of UK households, or 11.2 million people in total.

The research also showed that more than 70 percent of these people said that they were not interested in getting connected to the internet. This number has risen from just over 50% in 2005, with most giving lack of computer skills as a reason for not getting internet access, though some also said it was because of the cost.

More and more people are getting broadband and high speed net is available almost everywhere in the UK, but there are still a significant number of people who refuse to take the first step.

The cost of getting online is going down and internet speeds are increasing, so many see the main challenge to be explaining the relevance of the internet to this group. This would encourage them to get connected before they are left too far behind. The gap between those who have access to and use the internet is the digital divide, and if the gap continues to widen, those without access will get left behind and miss out on many opportunities, especially in their careers.


First Computer Programmer
Ada Lovelace was the daughter of the poet Lord Byron. She was taught by Mary Somerville, a well-known researcher and scientific author, who introduced her to Charles Babbage in June 1833. Babbage was an English mathematician, who first had the idea for a programmable computer.

In 1842 and 1843, Ada translated the work of an Italian mathematician, Luigi Menabrea, on Babbage's Analytical Engine. Though mechanical, this machine was an important step in the history of computers; it was the design of a mechanical general-purpose computer. Babbage worked on it for many years until his death in 1871. However, because of financial, political, and legal issues, the engine was never built. The design of the machine was very modern; it anticipated the first completed general-purpose computers by about 100 years.



When Ada translated the article, she added a set of notes which specified in complete detail a method for calculating certain numbers with the Analytical Engine, which have since been recognized by historians as the world's first computer program. She also saw possibilities in it that Babbage hadn't: she realized that the machine could compose pieces of music. The computer programming language 'Ada', used in some aviation and military programs, is named after her.

Каталог: uploads -> doc -> 0a52
doc -> Сабақ тақырыбы: Шерхан Мұртаза «Ай мен Айша» романы Сабақ мақсаты: ҚР «Білім туралы»
doc -> Сабақтың тақырыбы Бала Мәншүк ( Мәриям Хакімжанова) Сілтеме
doc -> Ана тілі №2. Тақырыбы: Кел, балалар, оқылық Мақсаты
doc -> Сабақ жоспары «Сәулет және дизайн» кафедрасының арнаулы пән оқытушысы, ҚР «Еуразиялық Дизайнерлер Одағының» мүшесі: Досжанова Галия Есенгелдиевна Пәні: Сурет және сұңғат өнері
doc -> Сабақ Сабақтың тақырыбы : Кіріспе Сабақтың мақсаты : «Алаштану» курсының мектеп бағдарламасында алатын орны, Алаш қозғалысы мен Алашорда үкіметі тарихының тарихнамасы мен дерекнамасына қысқаша шолу
doc -> Тәрбие сағаттың тақырыбы: Желтоқсан жаңғырығы
doc -> Сабақтың тақырыбы : Әбунасыр Әл- фараби Сабақтың мақсаты
doc -> Сабақ жоспары Тақырыбы: Үкілі Ыбырай Мектеп:№21ом мерзімі
0a52 -> Божбанова Алмагуль Балапановна
0a52 -> Пәні: Әдебиет Сыныбы: 8- сынып Мұғалім: Жанабаева с тақырыбы: Әбу Насыр Әл-Фараби.


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