Утвердительные предложения



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Утвердительные предложения

  1. Если вводное предложение при прямой речи стоит в Present Simple, то в косвенной речи не происходит сдвига (замены) времен:

She says, “I like ice cream” ? She says that she likes ice cream.

Как видно из примера, изменилось местоимение из I на she, поэтому изменился и глагол из like на likes, но остался в том же времени.

  2. Если вводное предложение в прошедшем времени, то и основное меняем на прошедшее (backshift):

She said, “I like ice cream” ? She said that she liked ice cream.


My sister said, “I have just come back from the park” ? My sister told me that she had just come from the park.
Kate said “I am going to buy a new car” ? Kate said that she was going to buy a new car.
“I will be 30 next summer”, said Tom. ? Tom said that he would be 30 the following summer.

Таблица изменения времен в косвенной речи


Direct Speech

Reported Speech

Present Simple

Present Simple

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Past Simple

Past Perfect

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous

Future I (going to)

Was/ were going to

Future I (will)

Conditional I would

Conditional I (would)

 

Как упоминалось выше, изменяется не только время, но и показатели времени и места.


Direct Speech

Reported Speech

today

that day

now

then

yesterday

the day before

tomorrow

the next day/ the following day

…days ago

days before

last week

the week before

next year

the following year

here

there

this

that

these

those

 

She said “This is the best summer” ? She said that that was the best summer.


My mother said “I found your book several days ago” ? My mother said that she had found my book several days before.
I called my friend and she said “I am watching TV now” ? I called my friend and she said that she was watching TV then.
Вопросительные предложения
Прямые вопросы трансформируются в непрямые вопросы, используются вопросительные слова или вводные слова if/ whether.

“How old are you?” ? He asked me how old I was.


Tom asked Jane “Where do you live?” ? Tom asked Jane where she lived.
She asked “Do you know this man?” ? She asked if I knew that man.
My friend asks “Are you going with us?” ? My friend asks whether I am going with them.
Просьбы, пожелания, советы

Для просьб, пожеланий и советов времена не имеют значения, так как используется форма to+infinitive:



He said “Bring me the book” ? He asked to bring him the book.
She said “Come to me tomorrow” ? She asked to come to her place the next day.
My mother said “Don’t eat the cake before dinner” ? My mother asked me not to eat the cake before dinner. 

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