Microsoft Word 320 Камышева doc

(3) … … … … … that indi- viduals and corporations could also suffer when their particular skills or  products  (4)

Pdf көрінісі
өлшемі2,39 Mb.
түріУчебное пособие
1   ...   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   ...   70
Английский язык - Технологии и инновации (1)

… … … … … that indi-
viduals and corporations could also suffer when their particular skills or 
… … … … … by the market. 
American economist and Professor Clayton M. Christensen coined the 
term disruptive technology (later disruptive innovation) to describe innova-
tions that 
… … … … … in ways that disrupt an existing market. The 
disruptive innovation often has characteristics that the traditional customer 
base does not care about, and may even be inferior compared to existing 

products, but will appeal to a different set of customers with different priori-
ties. The innovation is 
… … … … … not to the consumer (who, at least 
at first, has the choice to buy either the existing or innovative product) but 
to businesses that may be doing a good job supplying an existing product 
and yet see their market disappear as the new technology 
… … … … … . One example of a disruptive innovation is down-
loadable music files that offer the convenience of buying music online and 
playing it from one’s computer, as well as the ability to purchase individual 
songs. This appealed first to young people who were quite comfortable with 
computers and MP3 players (versus older consumers more used to fixed 
stereo systems and the concept of songs collected into albums) and severely 
cut into the market for compact discs. 
Cooperation between manufacturers and other institutions such as uni-
versities can 
… … … … … . In his work Biotechnology:
 The Universi-
ty-Industrial Complex
(1986), American sociologist Martin Kenney coined 
the term 
university-industrial complex
to describe, in the biotechnology in-
dustry, the flow of resources among universities (which provide knowledge 
and skilled labor), multinational corporations (that produce products), and 
venture capital firms (that provide financing to both research and produc-
tion). He noted that university-employed scientists 
… … … … … that 
formed the basis of the biotech industry, that scientists often move between 
employment in academia and the corporate sector, and that many university 
graduate programs have been created or enlarged specifically to train stu-
dents for the biotech industry. Development of the biotech industry 
was facilitated in large part 
… … … … … , which rewarded innova-
tion while also facilitating the creation of well-equipped research labs at 
universities as well as within corporations. Other sciences have also fol-
lowed the biotechnology model, with close relationships between the uni-
versity and corporations becoming the norm, such that many universities 
now have “technology transfer” offices to facilitate the process. 
Read more: 

Достарыңызбен бөлісу:
1   ...   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   ...   70

© 2023
әкімшілігінің қараңыз

    Басты бет