Байланысты: Английский язык - Технологии и инновации (1)
1. Read the text and summarise the text. Present the key concepts in the diagram given below: Disruptive Innovation Disruptive innovation, a term of art coined by Clayton Christensen, de-
scribes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple
applications at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves up mar-
ket, eventually displacing established competitors.
As companies tend to innovate faster than their customers’ needs
evolve, most organizations eventually end up producing products or services
that are actually too sophisticated, too expensive, and too complicated for
many customers in their market.
Companies pursue these “sustaining innovations” at the higher tiers of
their markets because this is what has historically helped them succeed: by
charging the highest prices to their most demanding and sophisticated cus-
tomers at the top of the market, companies will achieve the greatest profita-
However, by doing so, companies unwittingly open the door
to “disruptive innovations” at the bottom of the market. An innovation that
is disruptive allows a whole new population of consumers at the bottom of a
market access to a product or service that was historically only accessible to
consumers with a lot of money or a lot of skill.
Characteristics of disruptive businesses, at least in their initial stages,
can include: lower gross margins, smaller target markets, and simpler prod-
ucts and services that may not appear as attractive as existing solutions
when compared against traditional performance metrics. Because these
lower tiers of the market offer lower gross margins, they are unattractive to
other firms moving upward in the market, creating space at the bottom of
the market for new disruptive competitors to emerge.
Read more: http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/