Analysis of texts in foreign language. Essay on professional topics
Шет тіліндегі мәтіндерді талдау. Кәсіби тақырыптарға эссе
Translate given texts to Kazakh language.
Берілген мәтіндерді ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аударыңыздар.
1. Carl Friedrich Gauss
Born: April 30, 1777, Braunschweig, Germany Died: February 23, 1855, Göttingen, Germany Awards: Copley Medal Education: University of Helmstedt, University of Göttingen, Braunschweig University of Technology
Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, mechanics, electrostatics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.
2. Leonhard Euler
Born: April 15, 1707, Basel, Switzerland Died: September 18, 1783, Saint Petersburg, Russia Education: University of Basel (1720–1723) Influenced: Carl Friedrich Gauss, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, more Spouse: Salome Abigail Gsell (m. 1776–1783), Katharina Gsell (m. 1734–1773)
Leonhard Euler was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics like infinitesimal calculus and graph theory while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.
3. Isaac Newton
Born: January 4, 1643, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, United Kingdom Died: March 31, 1727, Kensington, London, United Kingdom Full name: Sir Isaac Newton Education: Trinity College, Cambridge (1667–1668), The King’s School, Grantham (1955-1959)
Sir Isaac Newton PRS was an English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Euclid of Megara was a Greek Socratic philosopher who founded the Megarian school of philosophy. He was a pupil of Socrates in the late 5th century BCE and was present at his death. He held the supreme good to be one, eternal and unchangeable and denied the existence of anything contrary to the good.
5. Srinivasa Ramanujan
Born: December 22, 1887, Erode Died: April 26, 1920, Kumbakonam Spouse: Janakiammal (m. 1909–1920) Education: Trinity College, Cambridge (1919–1920), University of Cambridge (1914-1919) Parents: Komalatammal, K. Srinivasa Iyengar
Srinivasa Ramanujan was an Indian mathematician who made significant contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory and continued fractions. At age 31 Ramanujan was one of the youngest Fellows in the history of the Royal Society. He was elected “for his investigation in Elliptic functions and the Theory of Numbers.” On 13 October 1918, he was the first Indian to be elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
6. Pierre de Fermat
Born: August 17, 1601, Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France Died: January 12, 1665, Castres, France Education: University of Orléans (1623–1626) Spouse: Louise Long Fermat (m. ?–1665) Books: Writings on Geometrical Loci Parents: Dominique Fermat, Françoise Cazeneuve Fermat
Pierre de Fermat, A French mathematician who is often called the founder of the modern theory of numbers.Fermat developed a system of analytic geometry which both preceded and surpassed that of Descartes; he developed methods of differential and integral calculus which Newton acknowledged as an inspiration. He was also the first European to find the integration formula for the general polynomial, he used his calculus to find centers of gravity etc.
7. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Born: July 1, 1646, Leipzig, Germany Died: November 14, 1716, Hanover, Germany Influenced: Ferdinand Georg Frobenius, more Education: Leipzig University, University of Altdorf, University of Jena Influenced by: René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Blaise Pascal and many more.
Leibniz pioneered the common discourse of mathematics, including its continuous, discrete, and symbolic aspects. His ideas on symbolic logic weren’t pursued and it was left to Boole to reinvent this almost two centuries later
8. Albert Einstein
Born: March 14, 1879, Ulm, Germany Died: April 18, 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, United States Influenced: Satyendra Nath Bose, Leo Szilard, Wolfgang Pauli, more Influenced by: Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi and many more.
Albert Einstein was unquestionably one of the two greatest physicists in all of history. The atomic theory achieved general acceptance only after Einstein’s 1905 paper which showed that atoms’ discreteness explained Brownian motion. Another 1905 paper introduced the famous equation E = mc2. Einstein published at least 300 books or papers on physics altogether.
Areas of interest: Politics, Mathematics, Metaphysics, Ethics, Music Influenced: Philolaus, Empedocles, Plato, Alcmaeon of Croton, Euclid, Johannes Kepler, Parmenides, Hippasus Philosophical era: Ancient philosophy Schools of thought: Pythagoreanism Influenced by: Thales of Miletus, Anaximander, Pherecydes of Syros, Themistoclea
Pythagoras discovered that harmonious intervals in music are based on simple rational numbers. This led to a fascination with integers and mystic numerology. The Pythagorean Theorem was known long before Pythagoras, but he is often credited with the first proof. Apastambha proved it in India at about the same time; some conjecture that Pythagoras journeyed to India and learned of the proof there.
10. René Descartes
Born: March 31, 1596, Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, France Died: February 11, 1650, Stockholm, Sweden Influenced: Noam Chomsky, Baruch Spinoza, Slavoj Žižek, more Influenced by: Aristotle, Plato, Thomas Aquinas, Archimedes and many more.
René Descartes is considered the inventor of both analytic geometry and symbolic algebraic notation. His use of equations to partially solve the geometric Problem of Pappus revolutionized mathematics.
Born: 476 AD, Assaka Died: 550 AD, India Nationality: Indian Books: Aryabhatiya Main interests: Mathematics, Astronomy Influenced: Lalla, Bhāskara I, Brahmagupta, Varāhamihira
Indian mathematicians excelled for thousands of years, and eventually even developed advanced techniques like Taylor series before Europeans did, but they are denied credit because of Western ascendancy. Among the Hindu mathematicians, Aryabhata was known as Arjehir by Arabs, may be most famous. Aryabhata is famous for the identity Σ (k3) = (Σ k)2. His most famous accomplishment in mathematics was the Aryabhata Algorithm for solving Diophantine equations. He made several important discoveries in astronomy.
Grigori Perelman (b1966)
Perelman was awarded $1m last month for proving one of the most famous open questions in maths, the Poincaré Conjecture. But the Russian recluse has refused to accept the cash. He had already turned down maths' most prestigious honour, the Fields Medal in 2006. "If the proof is correct then no other recognition is needed," he reportedly said. The Poincaré Conjecture was first stated in 1904 by Henri Poincaré and concerns the behaviour of shapes in three dimensions. Perelman is currently unemployed and lives a frugal life with his mother in St Petersburg.
Terry Tao (b1975)
An Australian of Chinese heritage who lives in the US, Tao also won (and accepted) the Fields Medal in 2006. Together with Ben Green, he proved an amazing result about prime numbers – that you can find sequences of primes of any length in which every number in the sequence is a fixed distance apart. For example, the sequence 3, 7, 11 has three primes spaced 4 apart. The sequence 11, 17, 23, 29 has four primes that are 6 apart. While sequences like this of any length exist, no one has found one of more than 25 primes, since the primes by then are more than 18 digits long.
Write an essay on one of provided topics consist of 12-13 sentences. The essay structure should be conserved.
Берілген тақырыптар бойынша математикалық терминдерді қамтитын эссе жазыңыз, эссе құрылымы сақталуы қажет, мәтінді 12-13 сөйлемнен құрастырыңыз.