П. М. Кольцов т.ғ. д., профессор, Қалмақ мемлекеттік д и. н., профессор, Калмыцкий



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Әдебиеттер

  1. Операции Советских Вооруженных Сил в период Великой Отечест-венной войны. 1941-1945гг. Том 1. М.1958. 640-бет.

  2. Герои битвы за Кавказ. Издательство «Ирыстон». Цхинвали. 1975. 40-бет.

  3. Ресей Федерациясы Қорғаныс министрлігі Орталық мұрағаты (РФ ҚМОМ). қ.1149. тізбе 976674. іс.1. п.2

  4. Ресей Федерациясы Қорғаныс министрлігі Орталық мұрағаты (РФ ҚМОМ). қ.1149. тізбе 42200. іс1. п.15-16, п.92, п.98.

  5. РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 1. іс 2. п.10, п.2, п.1.

  6. Герои битвы за Кавказ. 272-бет.

  7. 395-сд «Красный Воин» қызылармиялық газеті №51. 22.04.1943ж.

  8. РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 2. іс 5. п.10, 102, 198.

  9. РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 2. іс 5. п.10

  10. РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 2. іс 5. п.79

  11. РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 2. іс 5. п.179-198

  12. РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 1. іс. 6. п.53-54



А.И. Исмаилов, С.Н. Алибек

Подвиги генерала С. Рахимова на фронте
В статье приведены данные о генерале С.Рахимове, который в период Великой Отечественной войны 1941-1945 гг. из среды казахстанского национального офицерства первым был удостоен высокого звания генерал-майора.

Ключевые слова: офицер, дивизия, звания, армия, война.

A.I. Ismailov, S.N. Alibek

FEATS OF EXPLOITS GENERAL S. RAKHIMOV AT THE FRONT



In this article there are provided data about the general S.Rakhimov who was awarded by the 1st a high rank “Major general” among Kazakhs in the period of the Great Patriotic War in 1941-1945y.

Key words: officer, division, ranks, army, war


UDC 94 (574) “17/19”:32.019.5
U.Т. Аkhmetova - Doctor of Historical Science

West Kazakhstan State University after M. Utemisov (Uralsk)

Е-mail: Ulzhan.axmetova.67@mail.ru
The history of Kazakhstan and Iosif Antonovich Kastanye
Abstract. The article is considering the scientific activity of the French scientist I.A. Castanie in the beginning of the 20-th century, who was a member of the Scientific archives Commission in Orenburg. In his studies I.A. Castano paid great attention to the archeological and ethnographic issues.

Key words: archaeology, ethnography, history, archive.
Iosif Antonovich Kastanye was famous for his research works. He is a French scientist, who dealt with research and collection of ancient monuments of Kazakh history. In 1901 he came to Orenburg, where he worked as a teacher of French in the gymnasium for men and in the cadet corps after Nepluyev. That year he began to take part in the social and scientific life of the city. The summary of this research work “The History of Para (Brazil) published in the bulletin of the scientific council in Santiago and the investigation extracts of the Ethnographic Museum Director Geld” which had been published in the “Works” of Orenburg Scientific Archives Committee (Works of OSAC – U.A.) was delivered at a regular meeting on the 3rd of December in 1903. The scientist reports that the origin of the American Indians is in the focus of his attention. According to the investigation results, the similarity of the first inhabitants of America with the nation that is similar to Mongols. Due to Geld’s scientific data the Indians lived on the banks of the river Kunan. By the investigation results of two artificial caves that were called “yaka” the things found that at the cemeteries of Orenburg province in Russia were like those of the caves. For instance, the stone axes made of nephrite and other things that were similar to those of neolith epoch attract the scientists’s attention [1, pp. 171-173].

The scientist points out to the fact that similarities in the history of Kazakh people and American Indians take place.

I.A.Kastanye worked more than 10 years as a member of Orenburg Scientific Archives Committee and he was busy with collecting scientific information about Kazakh ancient monuments and systematized them.

By the permission of Archeological Committee of St.Petersburg and according to the task given by the OSAC, he started to fulfill archeological research works in Torgai oblast.

In accordance with the order №322 of May 24, 1904 the Archeological Committee sent a letter to the head of the department that led the construction jobs in the northern part of Orenburg-Tashkent railway. The letter read that the proper member of Archeological Committee, I.A. Kastanye had been sent on a mission to Torgai oblast to do archeological targets. In connection with it, they asked to give him a constant admission card from June 1 to August 10, 1904 in the northern part of Orenburg-Tashkent railway. In this regard the head of the department of the Orenburg-Tashkent railway informed the Head of the Orenburg Archives Committee that he would provide I.A. Kastanye with the 11 class free ticket by the order of №2029 of June 2, 1904 for the train №136 for a year [3, p-59].

I.A. Kastanye became the member of Orenburg Scientific Committee in 1902 and worked in the body of archeological expedition in Kazakh steppes, he also worked as a museum keeper and an assistant Head Commission in the years 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1909, 1911.

In 1904 Kastanye chose the nearest uezd Aktobe in his first trip to Kazakh land. There were 7 historical places: Karsaqbas in Elek bolus, the castles on the coast Baisholak, Shieli cave in Aktobe uezd, the ancient Shieli monuments which are given in the form of plaited stones, Ashysai burial mound in Aktobe bolus, the burial mound near the Zhaman Kargaly, the grave twisting three long lengths of stones near the coast of Zhaksy Kargaly and he researched these places [4, p-188].

The scientist made a report on his trip that in June, 1904 he went to Turkestan from Orenburg [5, p-176]. This trip was in Tashkent and Samarkand across the Kazakh land and then he returned back. After this trip at the regular meeting on March 9, 1905 he made an album of photos which were taken there in the report and handed in his papers [6, p-250].

Kastanye took a photo camera with him during the trip in order to collect a lot of documents about Kazakh history. His photos which were taken in Turkistan journey, such as “Kyrgyz council”, “Church in Aktobe”, “The house of a rich Kazakh”, “The Kazakh school in nomad’s tent”, “Kazakh steppe”, “Kazakh girls”, “A horseman”, “Steppe Journey”, “Ploughing”, “Mullahs” describe Kazakh life in the 20th century. Those photographies belong to the group of valuable photo documents.

At a regular meeting held on May 13, 1905 the Head of the Committee A.B.Popov asked to give him 15-20 roubles to finish the archeological expedition. They understood the importance of the archeological investigations and came to the conclusion to provide them with money.

On September 9, 1909 Kastanye made a report “Archeological works in Aktobe in the summer of 1909”. He made a speech about some excavates of ancient monuments. Then he gave in a scull of a human being and different things made of copper and iron, which were found during the expeditions [7, p-308].

Later, in his work “Ancient monuments of the Kyrghyz steppe and the Orenburg region” the investigations conducted on the Kazakh land and the work of the researchers of this region was collected, and was published in 1910 in Orenburg. I.A.Kastanye in the introduction of his work clearly pointed out: "ancient monuments of Torgai, Ural, Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk regions, the Bokei Horde of the Astrakhan province were included in this work and also some parts of Syrdarya region after the order of 1868 and this work was written only till 1911 [8, p-1].

I.A.Kastanye, later, in the letter written to M. Shokai about his work he remembers: “living among you, having witnessed grief and hopes, I admired the Kyrgyz-Kazakhs, Bashkirs, Tatars, Uzbeks and other people. I dedicated the book “Antiquities of the Kirghiz steppe and the Orenburg region” and other my books to courageous Turkic and Mongolian tribes which take a special place in the history”, - expressed his opinion [9, p-9]. Further, studying I.A.Kastanye's help to the activity of the commission, we learn that, in 1911 the chairman assistant I.A.Kastanye having made the list of a paleontology department of a museum, made the catalog of medals and money of the museum [10, p-17].

If we look for the facts about the private life of I.A.Kastanye who studied the ancient history of the Kazakh steppes and devoted several articles, we find very little information. We may find some information about the author in the articles of the historian K. Esmagambetov.

I.A.Kastanye whom we know - the French scientist Joseph-Antoine Kastanye was born in 1875 in a small town Gayak, in France. In 1899 he moved to Russia, and lived for two years in the Caucasus [9, p-9]. He brought great benefit, having participated in the work of Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission.

At the regular meeting on October 10, 1912 the chairman of the commission A.V.Popov having read I.A.Kastanye's letter, reported that he was saying goodbye to the members of the archival commission. Connected with it, they sent a letter of thanks to I.A.Kastanye for his great work and benefits in the work of the Commission. In 1912 I.A.Kastanye moved to Turkistan. In Tashkent he joined the Turkistan society of fans of archeology, the next year he was a member of Turkistan department of the Russian imperial geographical society. One of the organizations made contribution in studying of the Kazakh history - Turkistan society of fans of archeology - was a scientific center which was engaged in collecting historic facts about Central Asia, the Southern Kazakhstan and Zhetisu region. I.A.Kastanye in the period of his staying in Tashkent published a set of the works, which had materials about historical monuments and ethnography of the Kazakh steppe. The scientist’s research regarding the Kazakh history can be found in the scientific articles of S.M.Gorshenina.

Thus, I.A.Kastanye's scientific investigations about Kazakhs valuable in the history of Kazakhstan.

References


  1. Report on the state of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission in 1903// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Typo-lithography of I.I.Evfimovsky – Mirovitsky, 1905. – Issue 14. – p. 220.

  2. Orenburg Regional State Museum of the Russian Federation (OrRSM). 96-., 1-., 51-, 55-.

  3. (OrRSM). 96-., 1-., 51-, 59-.

  4. Kastanye I.A. Report on an expedition to Aktobe county summer 1904// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Typo-lithography of I.I.Evfimovsky – Mirovitsky, 1905. – Issue 14. – p. 220.

  5. Kastanye I.A. Report on trip to Turkistan// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Steam typo-lithography of PH.G.Karimov, 1906. - Issue 16. – p. 296.

  6. Report on the state of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission for 1905// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Steam typo-lithography of PH.G.Karimov, 1906. - Issue 16. – p. 296.

  7. Report on the state of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission. Compiled by the Governor of Affairs P.A.Neznyamov for 1909// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Typo-lithography “Karimov, Khusainov & Co”, 1911. - Issue 23. – p. 329.

  8. Kastanye I.A. Ancient monuments of the Kyrghyz steppe and the Orenburg region// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Typo-lithography Partnership “Karimov, Khusainov & Co”, 1910. - Issue 22. – p.321.

  9. Esmaganbetov K., Isakhan G. The Frenchman who was born in the town of Gayak and wandered about the Kazakh steppes// Egemen Kazakstan, January 26, 2005.

  10. The report on structure and activity for 1911. Compiled by the ruler of the Commission I.S.Shukshintsev // Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Printing house Karimov, Khusainov & Co, 1913. - Issue 29. – p. 239.

  11. Gorshenina S.M. Central Asia in the work of Joseph-Antoine Kastanye. – Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (Париж, 7.03.1997)



Ұ.Т.Ахметова

И.А. КАСТАНЬЕ ЖӘНЕ ҚАЗАҚСТАН ТАРИХЫ
Мақалада Қазақстанды ХХ ғ. бас кезінде зерттеген француз ғалымы И.А. Кастаньенің ғылымы туралы талданған. И.А. Кастанье тапқан материалдарын баспасөзге жариялады. Ол Орынбор ғылыми мұрағаттық комиссия мүшесі болды. Ғалым археологиялық және этнографиялық мәселелерге назар аударды.

Түйін сөз: археология, этнография, тарих, мұрағат.

У.Т. Ахметова

И.А. КАСТАНЬЕ И ИСТОРИЯ КАЗАХСТАНА
В статье росматривается научная деятельность французского ученого И.А. Кастанье в начале ХХ в., который был членом Обенбургской научно-архивной комиссии. В своих исследованиях И.А. Кастанье уделял большое внимание археологическим и этнографическим проблемам.

Ключевые слова: археология, этнография, история, архив.

UDC 903.53(574.1)



U. Akhmetova - Doctor of Historical Science

West Kazakhstan State University after M. Utemisov (Uralsk)

Zh. Mukhangalieva - Candidate of history sciences,

Е-mail: Zhan_2102@mail.ru
THE ETHNOGRAPY OF THE LITTLE ZHUZ IN THE EXPLORERS’ WORKS OF XIX CENTURY
Abstract. It was analyzed works devoted to ethnography of Kazakh’s of The Little Zhus. Also there are described spacious materials about the Kazakh etymology, the Kazakhs’ ethno-genesis, rus and tribes contained The Little Zhus and traditional rights.

Key words: ethnographic researches, Russian militaries, travelers, scientists, The Little Zhuz, customs and traditions, traditional right, ethno-genetic.
Collecting and researching of materials about Kazakh ethnographic concerning to XIX century was one of the main tasks for Russian science. The reasons of arise such problem were to use Kazakh steppe as colonial location and as the raw material for Russian empire. That’s why Russian empire organized military, natural, geographic and ethnographic researchers.

In the 20th - 40th of XIX century The Russian Empire sent trade and diplomatic embassies, organized by tens of military and scientific expeditions. One of such kind of expedition was organized to Buhara in 1820-1821 by leading of A. F. Negry. Though the main aim of embassy was to pay attention to trade and commercial parts, in addition to this, it was to pay attention to natural resources, to the political state in Central Asia, to their governors although it had been given the task to determine their attitude with Buhara, Afghanistan, Iran and Osman Empire [1]. It had been included specialist of nature and geography E.A. Eversman, captain of General Staff E.K. Meiendorf, Lieutenant V.D. Volhovsky to Negry’s embassy. With these staff E.K. Meiendorf and E.A. Eversman gave a lot of interesting facts about roving Kazakhs from Orenburg till Buhara.



E.K. Meiendorf (1796-1865), in his notebook, wrote about Kazakhs’ customs and traditions, about their everyday life, food and its methods of cooking, he also described ways of hunting to saigak and wild boar, about barymta, (barymta author: seizing cattle among turk people. Way of the vengeance for the offence or as the recompense to the caused damage), about women, about Russian captives’ state in Kazakh villages, wrote about management in Kazakh steppe. “ … Often at night, sitting on the stone they look to the moon and sing sad songs. It was described the past of the Kazakhs, historic and legendary national heroes on these songs… ”, Russian traveler said [2, p. 193]. He opened general contents of lyrical Kazakh songs. Also he was one of among Russian researchers who confirmed that Kazakhs and Kirghizes mustn’t be called with one name; he said that they are different.

The great numbers of rich ethnographic materials are retained in his third book. In the chapter “Travel from Orenburg to Buhara” he gave some interesting ethnographic facts about ways of hunting to saigak and about the everyday life of Aryngazy sultan’s village [2]. We can see a lot of ethnographic facts and materials in Eversman’s diary, published in German, who took part in this expedition as a member of Russian geographic society [3].

Difficult achievements of Russian geographic society in researching Kazakh nation was linked with the name of one of founders of Russian geographic society A. I. Levshin (1799-1879). His first manuscripts about Kazakh is “Way notes”, “Meeting with khan of kirghiz-kaisak orda” were published in 1820 [4, p. 551]. There were described ways of servicing guests and hospitality, types of old kazakh songs, about their definitions. In 1823-1824 it was published his book “Some facts about ancient town Saraishyk” [4, p. 556] and in 1825 it was published his article with title “about education in kirghiz-kaisak: fragments from descriptions of Kazakh ordas” [4, p. 557].

He was published with important article “Names of Kirghiz-kazakh and its differences from usual and savage kirghizes” [4, p. 558]. At this article he described real name of Kazakh and usage of name of kirghiz instead of Kazakh. He also underlined that usage of name kirghiz instead of Kazakh would be groundless after. He was also agree with E.K. Meiendorf with this facts.

The third part of his fundamental research “Description of Kirghiz-kaisak or kirghiz-kazakh’s ordas and steppes” was regarded to the Kazakh ethnography [4]. The ethnographic part of monograph contains of 32 chapters, it was caused main and important ethnographic goals.

Among the other scientists who had been researched ethnography of Kazakhs of The Little Zhus was G.G. fon-Hens. He had great deal of merit. Though Hens’s profession was military engineer, at first years of his work in Kazakh steppes, he conducted works concerning to natural and mineral resources. Therefore, he had made many archival manuscripts about history, ethnography, linguistic, folklore and economy of the Kazakhs. We can name work “Origin of the Kazakhs and its derivation” among them. In this work the author paid attention to the kazakh’s terminology used in some ethnographic fables, he explained rus of the little zhus, and their inhabited locality [5].

Even with this kind of prosperity there were not enough and were not rich collection of materials concerning to history of 20th - 40th of XIX century. They were only interested in rus and tribes structures, their locality and everyday life. Culture and art were not enough discussed.

Russian researchers of the second part of XIX century dedicated their works to the problems of mode of life, traditions and traditional rights in The Litlle Zhuz. Among these researchers was Russian office L.Meier, on his work named “Orenburg department of Kirghiz steppe” he gave some information about population of the little zhus, derivations of the little zhuz, and about their locality, amount of rus, motto, stock breeding, hunting and agriculture [6].

The head of Orenburg department of Russian geographic society L.F. Balluzek on his work “Traditional customs which have had the power of the law in small kirghiz orda” contained collections of materials concerning court affair, civil and criminal rights [7]. The work was succeed in collectors of those materials were Kazkh aristocrats. Thus, Kazakh sultans describing traditional rights were not always objective.

Russian sciences were also interested in problems of Kazakh ethno-genetic. But they couldn’t reveal its whole definition. Only some of its aspects were added. Among of the authors who had researched kazakhs’ ethno-genetic was ethnographer A.N. Haruzin. He was famous with his works devoted to ethnography and anthropology of Bokei Orda. Concerning to the materials of M.H. Dulaty, which were translated by Veliyminov-Zernov, he was mistaken thinking that the Kazakh, as political union, was founded only in the middle of XV century. [5, p. 42].

Making conclusion, from collected and analyzed materials, written research works, outlines and monographs, a lot of expeditions and researches there were given large volume to the researching the little zhus Kazakhs in the ethnographic position by Russian researchers. Russian and world history with the helping of E.K. Meiendorf, A.I. Levshin, L.F. Balluzek and another scientist would have extensive and real materials about the Kazakh. Using and discussing about it would be large achievement nowadays.
References

1. Akhmetova U.T. The formation and the activity of the Orenburg scientific archival commission (1887-1918): The thesis is submitted to confer the academic degree the Doctor of History. – Uralsk, 2010, p. 47

2. Meiendorf E. K. Ethnography of the Kazakhs in the notes of travelers in the beginning of XIX century. The 2nd supplemented edition, volume 49. - Astana “Altyn kytap”, 2007, p. 246

3. Vasiliev A. Travel of doctor Eversman to Buhara. / Works of Orenburg scientific archival commission. – Orenburg, 1905, edition 14, p. 200-210

4. Levshin A.I. Description of kirghiz-kazakh or Kirgiz kaisak steppes and ordas (under general editing of academic M.K.ozybaev). - Almaty, “Sanat”, 1996 p. 656

5. Kamieva G.B. From the researching history of the Kazakh ethnography (XVIII-XIX centuries): Educational supply. – Аktau, 2010, p. 75


6. Meier L. Orenburg department of Kazakh steppe. The 2nd supplemented edition, volume 17. - Astana “Altyn kytap”, 2007, p. 193

7. Balluzek L.F. Traditional customs which have had the power of the law in small kirghiz orda. P. 45-168 / Notes of Orenburg department of Russian, imperial geographic society. The 2nd edition 1871 – Kazan university press, 1872, p. 289



У.Т. Ахметова, Ж.К. Мухангалиева

КІШІ ЖҮЗ ҚАЗАҚТАРЫ ЭТНОГРАФИЯСЫ XIХ ҒАСЫР ЗЕРТТЕУШІЛЕРІ ЕҢБЕКТЕРІНДЕ
Мақалада орыс және әлемдік ғылымды Кіші жүз қазақтарының этнографиясы туралы ауқымды және шынайы мәліметтермен хабардар еткен Е.К. Мейендорфтың, А.И. Левшиннің, Л.Ф. Баллюзектің және өзге де ХІХ ғасырдың орыс зерттеушілерінің артынан қалдырған мол мұралары зерттелінді, тарихи ой елегінен өткізілді.

Түйін сөз: этнографиялық зерттеулер, әскерилер, саяхатшылар, ғалымдар, Кіші жүз, дәстүр, дәстүрлі құқық, этногенез

У.Т. Ахметова, Ж.К. Мухангалиева

ЭТНОГРАФИЯ КАЗАХОВ МЛАДШЕГО ЖУЗА

В ТРУДАХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ XIХ В.
В статье проведен анализ исторического наследия российских исследователей ХІХ в. Е.К. Мейендорфа, А.И. Левшина, Л.Ф. Баллюзека и других, содержащих достоверные сведения по этнографии казахов Младшего жуза.

Ключевые слова: этнографические исследования, военные, путешественники, ученые, Младший жуз, традиция, традиционное право, этногенез.

UDC 94:321 (05/11)



U. Ahmetova - Doctor of Historical Science

West Kazakhstan State University after M. Utemisov

N. Tukesheva - Candidate of history sciences

West Kazakhstan State University named after M.Utemissov

Е-mail: naztuk@mail.ru
FEATURING THE FRONTIER TRADE IN 19TH CENTURY RESEARCHERS’ WORKS
Abstract. In the article historiographic and source-based overview of Russian researchers’ works of the 19th century that has highlighted the frontier trade of Russia with Kazakhs has been presented.

Key words: scientific institutions, scientific societies, frontier trade, Russian researchers.
By the Empress Anna Ioannovna’s Decree as of May 1 1734 to execute the projects of ober-secretary of the Governing Senate I.K. Kirillov regarding reclamation of the eastern peripheries of Russia an Orenburg expedition was convened (1734-1737yy.). which was located in the Ufa city. One of the critical assignments of the expedition was to establish commercial and diplomatic relationships with Central Asian khanates. According to A.V. Popov the fortresses which I.K. Kirillov started to build on the left bank of the Yaik river were assigned to be “the main trading place of almost whole Asia” [1, L. 2-3]. In the manuscript translation of the works of F.G.Myuller kept in A.V. Popov’s fund Orenburg city is called “the large gate for the Caravan Trade between Europe and Asia”. This function was carried out by Volga cities of Atelj and Bulgar in the earlier times. [2, L.48]. Actually, the functions of the Orenburg commission heads (since 1737) V.I. Tatishev, V.A. Urusov, N.I. Neplyuev included management and development of frontier trade with Kirgiz-Kaisaks. Due to the necessity in being close to Kazakh nomades’ nomadising areas and establishing relationships in particular commercial ones N.I. Neplyuev tranferred the Orenburg city below moving 70 versts along the Yaik river towards the Berdskaya fortress. [1, L.3].

The topic of commercial relationships of the Orenburg city with Kazakhs and Central Asian states was one of A.V. Popov’s scientific interests. The scholar studied and published pertinent works of his predecessors. Thus, in Popov’s Works of Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission the V.V. Grigorjev’s “Description of the Khiva Khanate and the Way to It from Saraishik Fortress” had been published [3, PP.183-193]. In the mentioned work the Chairman of Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission draws attention to description of the trade routes from Russia to Khiva. Two of them start from Orenburg through Kazakh steppes and Karakalpaks nomadising areas, the third way lies from the Mangishlak harbor of Sartash between the Caspian and Aral seas and the fourth way under the name of “the Old Nogai Road” starting from Saraichik passes beyond the Gurjev city [3, PP.183-185]. In works of local historians other works of V.V.Grigorjev where the scientist analyzes commercial relationships with the Junior Juz Kazakhs have been mentioned. They are “Orenburg Kirgizs: their honesty and trading skills” and “Historical news about Kirgiz-Kaisaks and relations of Russia with Central Asia since Abul-khair Khan’s death with the map made based on the survey of Orenburg archive documents”. The last work was published for the first time in “Orenburgskie gubernskie vedomosti” in 1853. [4, PP.12-13, 16-19].



According to the 19th century scholars, “the commercial significance of Orenburg as a place for commodities exchange with Kirgizs and as a transshipment point of Russian and Central Asian goods grew consistently until the end of the 19th century”. An increase of trade caravans from Bukhara, Khiva, Kokand and Tashkent visiting Orenburg can be an evidence to this fact. [1, L.4]. To receive the caravans there was an Exchange Yard built two versts from Orenburg. Merchants from the Kazakh steppe and the Central Asian countries used to stop at the Exchange Yard where there was an exchange trade the whole summer. In their articles many of Russian scholars underline commercial significance of the yard and note an unequal nature of the trade with Kazakhs. When transfer to a monetary trade had occurred there were no extensive changes in trading with Kazakhs: “The Exchange Yard was gradually transferring to a monetary exchange, however the exploitation of Kirgizs by Tatar merchants continues: part of commodities is paid off by a commodity of an inferior matter” [1, L.5]. The Exchange Yard was a stone square with gates and the Asian part of it was for Asians and the European one for city residents. In winter time the trade was carried out in the city in the bazaar. However, Asians were not allowed in without a special permission. Kazakhs who arrive in Orenburg were let into the city in small portions accompanied by a strong escort as well as were let out with an escort [2, L.48]. A feature about a case of distribution amongst a Kazakh community of a low quality brick tea is interesting in this relation, prepared based on an archive material [5, P.3].
In 1894 in “Izvestiya” of the Orenburg department of Imperial Russian Geographical Society F.Gelmgolts’ work was published which was devoted to history of Orenburg Exchange Yard [6, PP.35-53]. In the article there is information about founding the Exchange Yard and its role in trade with Kazakhs and Central Asian states. F.Gelmgolts deduces, based on the information provided by V.N. Vitevsky, that the Exchange Yard was founded simultaneously with the Orenburg city in 1743 and was being built for several years until 1758. These details are specified in the inventor book of the Orenburg municipal social management as the year of founding the Exchange Yard. According to F.Gelgolmts “the yard” is located 4 versts to the south of Orenburg occupying the area of 40 000 square sagenes. Orenburg Exchange Yard was the first frontier market where exchange of Asian goods for Russian ones took place. The fair for the Exchange Yard was established on March 25 1871 and operated from June to November. And there was a fair committee formed by representatives of all the trade participants in particular there was a Kazakh chairman assigned. In the articles goods which were allowed to be exchanged between Kazakhs and Russian merchants were listed. The author analyses the trade of main products such as wool, cattle, and writes about unequal exchange facts [6, PP. 35-53]. A. Dobromislov calls the article of F. Gelmgolts the first attempt to give complete accurate data about the trade on the Orenburg exchange yard, but points out the author’s failure to cover all the data on trade while using archive materials [7, PP. 67-71]. The scholars associate the further increase of commercial significance of Orenburg with the construction of the railway. Orenburg commercial and industrial significance increase facilitated the increase of the city population. According to calculations of P.N Stolpyansky and the census data, the population of Orenburg in 1797 was 5441 people, in 1847 18512 people, 1897 72425 people and for the 1916 period it grew up to 150000 [1, L. 5]. The construction of the Caspian Railway in 1885 facilitated an increase in commercial relationships with Central Asia whereas trade turnovers with Kazakhs had decreased. To a considerable extent F. Gelmgolts associates this process with the increase of the role of commercial fairs in Turgai and Uralsk oblasts such as Uilskaya and Temirskaya Fairs [6, PP.51, 53].

The information about the opening of another season of the exchange yard emerged in city newspapers. “Turgaiskaya gazeta” says that since June 1, 1896 “Orenburg Exchange Yard has been open for trade and a large number of Kirgizs have assembled and settled near it. And inside of it stores with all possible commodities have opened and started commodity exchange with Kirgizs [8, P.4]. Undoubtedly, the topic of trade relations of Orenburg with Kazakhs has been actual for Russian scientific societies’ members. The analysis of the material has been published in the form of articles, messages, reports, features in periodicals of scientific societies, newspapers and has been published in separate prints in the form of brochures and books.



The considered material enables to deduce that in Russian researchers’ works a comprehensive material on frontier trade of Kazakhs with Orenburg places of commerce has been given. Data on an exchange trade in steppes with Russian merchants, development of fairs, issues arisen in the course of developing commercial points have been carefully analyzed by members of Russian scientific societies and establishments of XIX – beginning of XX cc. based on the survey of archive materials.

References

  1. State Archive of Orenburg region, Fund 168, Inventory 1, File 11

  2. State Archive of Orenburg region Fund 168, Inventory 1, File 63

  3. Works of Orenburg Scientific Archive. Issue XIX. Orenburg: Steam Typo lithography, 1908. – p.278.

  4. Yu.S.Zobov, Historians of the South Ural. Second half of the 19th c. – beginning of the 20th c. Manual. Orenburg, 1991.- p.128;. Akhmetovа U.T. Kazakh history in the works of Russian researchers.: (Election of works on the history of the members of Orenburg academic Commission) //Vestnik of Abai Kazakh national pedagogical University. Series «Historical and socio-political scientists» - Almaty, 2012. №1(32) - p.120-125.

  5. P.Stolpyansky, Historical Stories. // Turgaiskaya gazeta, N 22, 1903.

  6. F.Gelmgolts, Orenburg Exchange Yard. // Izvestiya of the Orenburg Department of Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Issue 3, 1894. Orenburg: Typo lithography of Gub. Pravleniya, 1894.- p.71.

  7. A. Dobromislov, Remarks on F.Gelmgolts’ feature of “Orenburg Exchange Yard”. // Izvestiya of the Orenburg Department of Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Issue 3, 1894. Orenburg: Typo lithography of Gub. Pravleniya, 1894. - p.71.

  8. Municipal newspapers: Opening of Exchange Yard. // Turgaiskaya gazeta, N 75, 1896.



У.Т. Ахметова, Н.М. Тукешева

ХІХ ҒАСЫРДАҒЫ ЗЕРТТЕУШІЛЕРДІҢ ЕҢБЕКТЕРІНДЕГІ

ШЕКАРАЛЫҚ САУДА МӘСЕЛЕЛЕРІ
Мақалада Россия мен қазақтар арасындағы шекаралық сауда мәселелеріне арналған ХІХ ғасырдағы ресейлік зерттеушілердің еңбектеріне тарихнамалық және деректанулық талдау жасалынды.

Түйін сөз: ғылыми институт, ғылыми қоғамдар, ғылыми мекемелер, шекаралық сауда, Ресей зерттеушілері.

У.Т. Ахметова, Н.М. Тукешева

ОСВЕЩЕНИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ ПОГРАНИЧНОЙ ТОРГОВЛИ

В РАБОТАХ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЕЙ XIX В
В статье проводится историографический и источниковедческий обзор работ россий-ских исследователей XIXв., освещавших проблему пограничной торговли России с казахами.

Ключевые слова: научные учреждения, научные общества, пограничная торговля, российские исследователи.

ғылыми НАУЧНАЯ ACADEMIC

ӨМІР ЖИЗНЬ LIFE




27 наурыз 2012 жылы М. Өтемісов атындағы Батыс Қазақстан мемлекеттік университетінде Батыс Қазақстан өлкесінен шыққан көр-некті әдебиетші ғалымдар: фольклоршы-этнограф, филология ғылымда-рының докторы, профессор Мәтжан Мақсымұлы Тілеужановтың және әдіскер-педагог, педагогика ғылымдарының кандидаты, профессор Қалимолла Жұмағалиұлы Мырзағалиевтің 85 жылдық мерейтойларына арналған «Қазақ әдебиеттану ғылымы мен тіл білімі: жаңа бағыттары және оқытудың инновациялық технологиялары» аймақтық ғылыми-тәжірибелік конференциясы ұйымдастырылды.

Конференция жұмысына М. Өтемісов атындағы БҚМУ ректоры, п.ғ.д., академик А.С. Иманғалиев, Ақтөбе мемлекеттік педагогикалық институты профессоры, ф.ғ.д. Ж.А. Асанов, Қ.Жұбанов атындағы Ақтөбе мемлекеттік университетінің профессоры, ф.ғ.д. А.М.Мұсаев, ф.ғ.к., доцент Р.Қ.Мұқам-бетқалиева, ф.ғ.к., доцент З.Ж. Мүтиев, Ақтөбе мемлекеттік педагогикалық институты доценті, ф.ғ.к. Н.Ә.Сәдуақас, п.ғ.д., профессор А.С. Қыдыршаев және ҰБА «Өрлеу» АҚ БҚО филиалы директоры, п.ғ.к. С.С. Ізмұхамбетова қатынасты. Конференция жұмысы «Профессор Мәтжан Мақсымұлы Тілеужанов және қазақ әдебиеттану ғылымы: жаңа бағыттары, зерттеу мәселелері», «Профессор Қалимолла Жұмағалиұлы Мырзағалиев және қазақ тілі мен әдебиетін оқытудың заманауи технологиялары», «Оқытудың бүгінгі педагогикалық және психологиялық бағыттары мен ұлттық тәрбие мәселелері» атты секцияларында жалғасын тапты.


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27 наурыз 2012 жылы М. Өтемісов атындағы Батыс Қазақстан мемлекеттік университетінде «Актуальные проблемы науки и практики в сфере пресечения недобросовестной конкуренции» тақырыбында І халықаралық ғылыми-тәжірибелік конференция онлайн түрде ұйымдастырылды.

Конференция жұмысына Ресейдің Саратов, Украинаның Киев және Орал қалалары ғалымдарының баяндамалары ұсынылды. Халықаралық ғылыми-тәжірибелік конференцияға М. Өтемісов атындағы Батыс Қазақстан мемлекеттік университетінің заң ғылымдарының кандидаты, доцент К.М. Оңғарбаева «Охрана прав интеллектуальной собственности в Респуб-лике Казахстан» тақырыбында және экономика ғылымдарының кандидаты, доцент Н.Г. Шамакова «Недобросовестная конкуренция на рынке финан-совых услуг РК» тақырыбында баяндамаларын оқыды.


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29 наурыз 2013 жылы М. Өтемісов атындағы БҚМУ-дың акт залында М. Өтемісов атындағы Батыс Қазақстан мемлекеттік универ-ситетінің Қазақстан Республикасы тарихы кафедрасының ұйымдасты-руымен «Ұлт-азаттық қозғалыс және Махамбет Өтемісұлы» тақыры-бында дөңгелек үстел ұйымдастырылды.

Дөңгелек үстел жұмысында «Ұлт-азаттық қозғалыс және Махамбет Өтемісұлы», отандық тарихтағы махамбеттану саласының зерттелу мәсе-лелері, жастарға патриоттық тәрбие берудегі Махамбет тағылымы бойынша мәселелер талқыланды. Дөңгелек үстелге Батыс Қазақстан облысы ішкі саясат басқармасының бастығы М.Л. Тоғжанов, облыстық маслихат депутат-тары Г.М. Жаңбыршиев, А.Зинуллаұлы және БАҚ өкілдері жас ғалымдар мен студенттер қатынасты. Отырыс барысында т.ғ.д. Ұ.Т. Ахметованың «ХІХ ғ. бас кезеңіндегі Кіші жүздегі ұлт-азаттық қозғалыстар және олардың сабақтастығы», ф.ғ.д. Ғ.Қ.Хасановтың «Махамбет толғауларының тілдік ерекшелігі», т.ғ.к. С.М. Ғиззатовтың «Исатай мен Махамбет бастаған ұлт-азаттық көтеріліс және оның отандық тарихындағы маңызы», т.ғ.к. М.Ғ. Дюсенғалиеваның «Исатай - басшы, мен - қосшы» және магистрант С.Н. Сақауованың «Батырлар институты және оның дәстүрлі қазақ қоғамындағы орны» атты баяндамалары оқылды.


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2013 жылдың 11 сәуірінде М.Өтемісов атындағы Батыс Қазақстан мемлекеттік университетінде 12 сәуір ғылым қызметкерлері күніне арналған «Қазақстанның индустриалды-инновациялық дамуындағы ғалымдардың рөлі мен белсенділігі» тақырыбында дөңгелек үстел ұйымдастырылды.

Дөңгелек үстел барысында М.Өтемісов атындағы БҚМУ ректоры, педагогика ғылымдарының докторы, академик Асхат Сәлімұлы Иманғалиев құттықтау сөз сөйлеп, университетіміздің отыз екі ғалымын атаулы мереке қарсаңында алғыс хаттармен, бағалы сыйлықтармен марапаттады. Олардың ішінде, тарих ғылымдарының докторы, профессор Тұяқбай Зейітұлы Рысбеков, химия ғылымдарының докторы, профессор Дина Кенжебекқызы Мендалиева, биология ғылымдарының докторы, профессор Талшен Есено-манқызы Дарбаева және т.б. болды. Дөңгелек үстел жұмысында «Уни-верситет ғалымдары алған белестер» тақырыбында ғылыми жұмыс және халықаралық байланыстар жөніндегі проректор, тарих ғылымдарының докторы Әбілсейіт Қапизұлы Мұқтардың баяндамасы тыңдалды. Сонымен қатар, «М.Өтемісов атындағы БҚМУ ғылыми мектептерінің қалыптасуы тарихы» атты фильм тамашаланып, аға буын, белгілі ғалымдар биология ғылымдарының кандидаты, профессор Мария Максимовна Фартушина, филология ғылымдарының кандидаты, профессор Серікқали Ғабдешұлы Шарабасов және жас ғалымдар атынан тарих мамандығы магистранты Сандуғаш Сақауова құттықтап, жылы лебіздерін білдірді.



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Азаматтық парызыңызды адал атқарып, абыройлы да, мерейлі өмір жолыңыздың бір белесі болып отырған 50 жасқа толған мерей-тойыңызбен Сізді М. Өтемісов атындағы Батыс Қазақстан мемлекеттік университеті тарих және құқық факультетінің ұжымы шын жүректен құттықтайды.

Сіздің өмір жолыңыз - қоғам мен кейінгі толқын жастарымыздың алдында тағзым мен дәріпке ие.

Қымбатты Әсет Сембайұлы! Біз Сізді жоғары оқу орнында қызмет атқарған басшы ретінде ғана емес, сонымен қатар жаңашыл, шығармашылық жұмыс стилі тиісті құрмет пен сенім әкелген ғалым, педагог ретінде білеміз. Сіз құқықтық пәндер кафедрасының меңгерушісі, тарих және құқық факультетінің деканы, университеттің оқу-әдістемелік жұмысы жөніндегі проректоры, бірінші проректоры қызметтерін абыроймен атқаруы-ңыз, бүгінгі таңдағы егеменді еліміздің білімі мен ғылымы саласындағы жемісті еңбегіңіз сол қажырлы қайрат пен іскерлігіңіздің заңды нәтижесі деп білеміз. Ел құрметіне бөленіп, еңбекке деген ыждағаттылық, біліктілік Сізді жауапкершілігі мол, міндеті зор басшылық қызметтерді атқаруға жеткізді. Университет қабырғасында еңбек еткен жылдарда студенттердің санасына патриоттық тәлім-тәрбиені сіңірумен қатар, ғылыми-зерттеу жұмыстарына белсене араласуыңыз, білім мен ғылымды дамытуға қосқан үлесіңіз – Отанымыздың гүлденуіне бағытталған адал да риясыз қызмет етудің үлгісі болып табылады.

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Тарих және құқық факультетінің ұжымы

К юбилею кандидата филологических наук, доцента

К.К. Биалиевой


Наш дорогой коллега – Биалиева Кабира Кабошевна – отмечает в эти дни славный юбилей.

Около пятидесяти лет она преподает в ЗКГУ, читая сложнейшие курсы современного русского языка, социолингвистику, психолингвистику.

Кабира Кабошевна участвовала в работе Международного конгресса русистов в 1990 году; постоянно в сфере её научных интересов – ак-туальные проблемы казахско-русского двуязычия.

Она принадлежит к когорте тех ученых, которые заложили много славных традиций в ЗКГУ, обеспечив высокое качество преподавания.

Под научным руководством Биалиевой К.К. было выполнено более шестидесяти дипломных работ, она является научным руководителем магистрантов.

С лучшей стороны Кабира Кабошевна показала себя, работая во Вьетнаме, продемонстрировав высокий профессиональный уровень препода-вателя нашего университета.

Жизненный путь Кабиры Кабошевны не был гладким. Детство её пришлось на суровые военные годы. Было всё – тяжелое ранение отца, голод-ные пайки, но школа наполняла важным: учебой, общением с хорошими людьми. А дома была дружная трудовая семья, где подрастали младшие братишки. После окончания школы молодая выпускница работает в школе….

В 1960 году К.К. Биалиева поступает в Уральский педагогический институт им. А.С.Пушкина. Учится блестяще и, по окончании его - в 1964 – 1966 гг. – становится преподавателем кафедры русского языка в родном вузе. Затем она направляется в числе лучших выпускников в аспирантуру – Алма-Ату. Здесь она легко преодолевает экзаменационные испытания и становится аспиранткой Казахского государственного университета им. С.М.Кирова.

Годы учебы связаны еще с одним важным выбором. В стенах пединститута она встречает свою судьбу – молодого тюрколога Хусаина Агелеуовича Агелеуова. Они соединяют свои пути.

Окончание аспирантуры, защита диссертации на тему «Деепричастные конструкции в русском и казахском языках» стали тем фундаментом, на котором возводится крепкое здание профессионального успеха нашего юбиляра. Кабира Кабошевна, начав преподавательскую деятельность с должности ассистента, быстро становится самым молодым доцентом вуза и бессменным руководителем кафедры русского языка, а затем возглавляет объединенную кафедру русского языка и литературы с 1983 – 2003 гг.

Это были годы планомерного роста, когда молодых питомцев кафедры готовили к поступлению в аспирантуру, когда выпускники – русисты создавали ту мощную базу специалистов, которые и сейчас составляют основу работников народного образования региона.

Кабире Кабошевне удавалось сочетать жесткую требовательность с мягкостью интеллигента. Всегда подтянутая, модно одетая, с безукориз-ненным макияжем – она остаётся для всех коллег – молодого и зрелого возраста – образцом женственности и высокого эстетического вкуса.

Именно Кабира Кабошевна создала ту атмосферу кафедры Русской филологии, которая всегда была её визитной карточкой. Кафедра стала одной семьёй, надежной и требовательной к её членам. Кабира Кабошевна всегда знает и сопереживает служебным и личным заботам каждого члена кафедры, и это не формальная вежливость, а живая заинтересованность в рабочем настрое сотрудников. Для каждого у Кабиры Кабошевны найдется ободряю-щее, мудрое слово. В семье Кабиры Кабошевны - две замечательные дочери, состоявшиеся специалисты самого высокого класса, работают в Астане. Они подарили любимой маме-бабушке замечательных внуков, и мы верим, что кто-то из них станет также филологом, чтобы продолжать семейные тради-ции славной семьи нашей дорогой и горячо любимой Кабиры Кабошевны.

Достижения Кабиры Кабошевны в образовании и науке не раз отме-чались многочисленными грамотами, среди которых Почетная грамота Министерства образования Казахской ССР. Она была награждена медалями «Дружба народов» (Вьетнам), «Ветеран труда», значком «Отличник народ-ного образования Казахской ССР».

Дорогая Кабира Кабошевна! В этот светлый день Вашего юбилея разрешите пожелать Вам крепкого здоровья, большого счастья, семейного благополучия и успехов в Вашем нелегком научном и педагогическом труде.



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