Практикум по курсу грамматики английского языка для студентов 3-го курса, изучающих английский язык в качестве основной специальности



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Кокшетауский Университет им. Ш.Ш. Уалиханова

Кафедра английского языка и МП



Grammar exercises on verbals for the Kazakh department

(for third year students)

Составитель: ст. преп. Калихайдарова Г.Е.

Пособие утверждено на заседании кафедры английского языка

Кокшетау 2007


Пояснительная записка
Настоящее пособие представляет собой практикум по курсу грамматики английского языка для студентов 3-го курса, изучающих английский язык в качестве основной специальности.

Пособие состоит из трех частей: 1) The Participle, 2) The Gerund, 3) The Infinitive. Содержание и характер упражнений пособия определяются его основным назначением – содействовать подготовке преподавателя английского языка. Таким образом, основной задачей явилось создание системы упражнений, направленных на практическое и активное овладение английской грамматикой, а именно безличной формой глаголов (Non-finite forms of the verb). Работа над упражнениями состоит из ознакомительно-распознавательного, активизирующего этапов.

Данное пособие может быть использовано как для работы в аудитории, так и для самостоятельной работы в домашних условиях.

Түсініктеме

Бұл құрал ағылшын тілін негізгі мамандық ретінде оқитын 3-ші курс студенттеріне арналған, ағылшын тіл грамматикасының практикумы болып табылады.

Құрал 3 бөлімнен тұрады: 1) The Participle, 2) The Gerund, 3) The Infinitive. Құрал ішіне кіретін жаттығулардың мазмұны мен сипаты оның негізгі арнаумен белгіленеді - ағылшын тіл мұғалімінің дайындығына қолбағыс жасау. Сонымен, негізгі мақсат – ағылшын тілінің грамматикасын, атап айтқанда тістіктің жқсыз түрін практикалық және белсенді түрде меңгеруге бағытталған жаттығулардың жүйесін жасау. Жаттығулармен жұмыс таныстурышы – анықтаушы және жандандырушы кезеңдерден тұрады.

Бұл құралды аудиторида жұмыс істеу үшін де, үйде өздік жұмыс атқарғанда да пайдалануға болады.



CONTENTS

The Non-Finite Forms of The Verbs (Verbals)……………………………………4

Part I. The Participle ………………………………………………………………6

Tests for self-control (The Participle)…………………………………………….15

Part II.The Gerund………………………………………………………………...20

Test for self-control (The Gerund)………………………………………………..28

Part III. The Infinitive……………………………………………………………...33

Tests for self-control (The Infinitive)…………………………………………43

The Non-Finite Forms of The Verbs (Verbals)

The verb has finite and non-finite forms, the latter being also called verbals. The verbals, unlike the finite forms of the verb, do not express person, number or mood. Therefore they cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence.

Like the finite forms of the verb the verbals have tense and voice distinctions, but their tense distinctions differ greatly from those of the finite verb.

There are three verbals in English: the participle, the gerund and the infinitive.

In Kazakh we also have three non – finite forms of the verb, but they do not fully coincide with those in the English language (етістіктің жақсыз формасы, есімше, көсемше).

The characteristic traits of the verbals are as follows:

1. They have a double nature, nominal and verbal. The parti­ciple combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an ad­jective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a noun.

2. The tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute (like those of the finite verb), but relative; the form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present, past or future; it shows only whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb or prior to it.

3. All the verbals can form predicative constructions, i.e. con­structions consisting of two elements, a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive); the verbal element stands in predicate relation to the nominal element, i. e. in a relation similar to that between the subject and the predicate of the sentence. In most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence.

They sat down to supper, Manston still talking cheerfully.

(Hardy)

Олар тамақтануға отырғанда Мэнстон қуанышты сөйлеуін жалғастырды.



Manston still talking cheerfully is a predicative construction with a participle: the participle talking stands in predicate relation to the noun Manston, which denotes the doer of the action express­ed by the participle.

In the sentence a verbal may occur:

(a) singly, i. e. without accompanying words.

She... went away smiling. (Dreiser)

Ол ... күлүмсіреп әрі кетті.

Reading is out of the question — I can't fix my attention on books. (Collins)

Оқу туралы сөз болмау керек - мен өз көңілімді кітапқа аудара алмаймын.



To decide is to act.

Шештің бе - жұмысқа кіріс.

(b) in phrases, i.e. with one or several accompanying words (an object or an adverbial modifier to the verbal). These phrases form syntactic units serving as one part of the sentence.

A phrase should not be confused with a predicative construc­tion: between the elements of a phrase there is no predicate rela­tion as it does not include a noun or pronoun denoting the doer of the action expressed by a verbal.

The windows of the drawing-room opened to a balcony over­looking the garden. (Mansfield)

Қонақ үйдің терезесі бақ көрінетін балконға шығып тұрды.

She tried to tranquillize him by reading aloud. (Gaskell)

Not to disquiet his sister, he had said nothing to her of the matter. (Hardy)

(c) in predicative constructions.



My mistress being dead..., I had to look out for a new place.

(Ch. Bronte)

There is no mistake about his being a genius. (Shaw)

She heard him unbar the door and go out into the yard. (Hardy)

Part I

The Participle

The participle is a non-finite form of the verb which has a verbal and an adjectival or an adverbial character. There are two participles in English — Participle I and Parti­ciple II, traditionally called the Present Participle and the Past Participle.

Note. — These traditional terms are open to objection on the ground that Participle 1 does not necessarily refer to the present, just as Parti­ciple II need not refer to the past. The difference between them is not a difference in tense, but chiefly a difference in voice.


Forms of participle I




Active

Passive

Indefinite

writing

being written

Perfect

having written

having been written


Ex. 1. Give all possible forms of the participle I of the following verbs:

To come, to cover, to read, to write, to look, to wait, to ring, to think, to go, to laugh, to give, to jump.


Ex. 2. Replace the infinitives in brackets by the correct forms of Participle I.

1. (to wait) for some time in the reception room, he was asked into the office. 2. (to wait) in the reception room he thought over what he would say when he was asked into the office. 3. The street was full of people, (to laugh) and (to go) home. 4. The gypsy smiled (to show) his teeth. 5. (to watch) them, he raised his coffee cup. 6. (to reject) by the editorial board, the story was returned to the author for revision. 7. (to reject) by publishers several times, the story was accepted by a weekly magazine. 8. They reached the peak at dusk, (to leave) their camp with the first light. 9. (to write) and (to leave) a note with the porter, he said he would be back in a half-hour. 10. (to write) in an archaic language, the book was difficult to read. 11. (to write) his first book, he could not go far beyond his own experience. 12. Not (to want) to go deeper into the matter, he abruptly changed the conversation. 13. (to be) away so long he was happy to be coming back. 14. (to be) so far away he still felt himself part of his community. 15. The children looked wonderingly at the elephant, never (to see) such a huge animal.




Place of the Participle 1

The fence surrounding the garden is newly painted

Бақшаны қоршайтын шарбақ жаңа боялған.

Having closed the door, he began to write a letter

Есікті жауып, ол хатты жаза бастады

While reading the book I came across new set expressions

Кітәпті оқығанда, мен жаңа тұрақты айтылымдарға кездестім.


Ex. 3. Translate what is given in brackets using: a) Participle I (active, non-perfect) in attributive phrases where possible.

Note: Attention should be paid to the fact that Participle I in the function of an attribute cannot express priority; therefore it often happens that when in Kazakh we have есімше in English we find a finite verb; it is rendered in English by an attributive clause.

Ларри өз ұлдарын кішкене бөлмеге өткізді, одан бөлмені жинаған екі әдемі қызметші қыз жүгіріп шықты.

Larry led his sons into the little chamber, whence two pretty servants, who had been arranging the room, ran out.

A clause, not a participle, is generally used in English even when the Kazakh есімше expresses an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb.

Оның барлық қылықтарын білетін шешем, әрдайым кітәпті алысырақ тығып жеруге тырысты.

My mother, who knew all his habits, used to thrust the volume into some remote hiding-place.
1. Go to the corner and ask the militiaman (сол жерде тұрған) to show you the way. 2. The man (кестенің жанында тұрған) was our teacher last year. 3. Did you see in what direction the man (осы жерде тұрған) went? 5. He wants to write a book (қортындылайтын) his impressions of the trip. 6. The people (сізді күткен) have just gone. 7. The people (дәрігерді күтіп тұрған) have been sitting here for a long time.
b) Participle I (active, perfect or non-perfect) in adverbial phrases.

Note: with some verbs of sense perception and motion, such as to see, to hear, to come, to arrive, to enter , to seize, to look out, to turn and some others, Participle I Indefinite is used even when priority is meant.

1. (Білгенің бәрін айтып) the witness left the boxes. 2. (Есікті екі рет қағып және жауап алмай) he decided that there was nobody in. 3. (Есікті итеріп) he told that it was not locked, and (оны ашып) he locked inside. 4. (Өз артынан есікті тиіш қана жауып) he tiptoed into the room. 5. Each time (бұл оқиға туралы айтқанда) he could not help smiling. 6. (Қонақ ұйге келіп) she found a telegram awaiting her. 7. (Осында келіп) only a few years before he knew those parts as it had always lived there. 8.I felt very tired (күн бойы болып) in the sun. 9. (Күмісті түсіріп және трупканы көтеріп) he began to dial the number. 10. (күмісті жерге түсіріп алып) he did not care to look for it in the darkness and took another one.
Ex. 4. Arrange the given parts into sentences. Pay attention to the place of the Participle.

1. left, gaily, the company, the cafe`, chattering. 2. The bus, will arrive, at noon, you, in time, leaving, to catch. 3. At the branches, in the darkness, slowly, stared, moving, the girl. 4. Flooding, the water, came, the valley. 5. Asleep, the boy, slipping, immediately, fell, into bed. 6. Sleeping, the child was, on his back, lying. 7. To him, smiling, turned, she, her face. 8. No answer, we, receiving, a cable, sent. 9. Cleaning, the person, inside the building, was, only, a charwoman.




Functions of Participle I

attribute

I picked up the pencil lying on the floor

Мен еденде жатқан қарындашты көтердім

adverbial modifier of



time

Coming near, I found the door slightly ajar.

Having closed the door, he sat thinking.

When reading the book we learnt much new.

Жақын келіп, мен есік кішкене ғана ашық екенін таптым.

cause

Being tired, I thought I should sleep well

Шаршағантықтан мен жақсы ұйықтауым тиіс деп ойладым

manner,

attendant circumstances

Still they worked on, whispering to one another

Олар бір бірімен сыбырлап жұмыс істей берді

comparison

This was said, as if thinking aloud.

Бұл дауыстап ойлағандай айтылды.

Predicative

The effect of her words was terrifying

Оның сөзінен алынған әсер қорқынышты болды.

Complex object

I saw the children playing in the garden

Мен бақшада ойнап жүрген балаларды көрдім.

Compound verbal predicate

The children were seen running to the river

Балалардың өзеңге қарай жүгіргені көрінді

parenthesis

Generally speaking, I do not like boys.

Жалпы айтқанда, мен ер балаларды ұнайтпаймын


Ex. 5. State the function of Participle I.

1. Having traversed seven hundred miles he was now traveling toward the border of the United States. 2. There was a tiny smile playing about the corner of his mouth. 3. He had a beautiful old house in Queen Anne Street, and being a man of taste he had furnished it admirably. 4. Dona Carlotta covered her face with her hand, as if swooning. 5. Turning in anger, she gave John a shove, spilling his tea. 6. To Maggie, the new protective gentleness, of her son was sweet, and also very frightening. 7. Judging him by his figure and his movements, he was still young. 8. Placing his drink upon the mantelpiece the ex-convict stood for a moment observing the young man out of the corner of his eye. 9. Being very tired with his walk however, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles. 10. He raised his eyes, looked at her as though peering over the top of spectacles. 11. There were four girls sitting on the wooden benches of the agency’s front room. 12. Having shaken hands with them, he brought his own hands together with a sharp slap. 13. Manuel went in, carrying his suitcase. 14. While pondering this problem, I sat in the dormitory window-seat. 15. I am going to Rome, having friends there. 16. There was sunlight coming in through the shutters. 17. Abraham appeared at noon the next day, bringing with him two hundred dollars in cash. 18. Much of the afternoon I looked out of the window, as though thinking, but not really thinking. 19. He was thoughtful for a moment while leaning perilously close to the fire. 20. Cecilia had heard very little being absorbed in her own reflections. 21. Having breakfast. Out I went. 22. He looked at his father listening with a kind of painful desperation. 23. She recrossed her legs comfortably, as though preparing for a long session on the sofa. 24. Never having encouraged friends to drop in spontaneously, she was almost totally alone. 25. A cold wind swept the pavement, bearing a scrap of silver paper from a chocolate box across the lamplight.



Ex. 6. Translate into English. State the function of the Participle I.

1. Ол үстелдің үстінде тұрған вазаға көрсетті. 2. Арман өзеңге апаратын жолмен жүрді. 3. Бөлмеге кіргенде, ол үстелде бір хат көрді. 4. Жұмысынан қатты шаршағандықтан, ол ерте ұйықтады. 5. Ол менің жарамды қарап, тыныштықта болды. 6. Ол менен бір сөз күткендей, үңірейіп қарады. 7. Мен балалар хоккей ойнап жатқандарын көрдім. 8. «Соғыс» деген сөздің мағынасы өте қорқынышты. 9. Оқушылардың ақырғы емтихандар туралы айтып жатқаны естілді. 10. Жалпы айтқанда, ол өте ақылды болды. 11. Үйді қоршап тұрған шарбақ өте биік болды. 12. Түгел әңгіме қорқынышты болды.13. Менің көзім алыстап бара жатқан машинаға қадалды. 14. Ол автобусты күтіп тұрғанда, бірнеше ережелерді жаттап алды. 15. Ол маған жек көретіндей тесіліп қарады. 16. Оның дауысың естіп, ол оғаң қарай бас салды. 17. Бұл мәселені мен тез арада шешкен соң, жеңілдікті сездім. 18. Олар коридормен өткен біреулердің дауыстарын естіді. 19. Моэмның әңгімелерін оқығанда, көптеген қызық абзацтарды кездестіруге болады. 20. Бұл мәтін кішкентай әріптермен жазылғандықтан түсінуге қиын болды. 21. Ол бір нәрсені есіне түсіргендей, қабырғадағы суретке қарсы отырды. 22. Кенеттен тұманның арасында жүгіріп жатқан тұлғалар көрінді. 23. Түріне қарасақ, ол өте бай адам. 24. Ол жақсы әртіс болғандықтан, өзінің барлық рөльдерің жатқа білетін. 25. Алыста олар мылтық атылуын естіді.


Ex. 7. Translate what is given in brackets by the English Participle II.

1. What is the number of apartment houses (салынған) in the past few years. 2. The new methods (қолданылған) in the building of houses proved more effective. 3. These are the samples of products (жіберілген) last month. 4. WE could hear the noise of furniture (қозғалған) upstairs. 5. One can’t fail to notice the progress (жасалған) by our group during the last term. 6. They listened breathlessly to the story (айтылған) by the old man.




Functions of Participle II

attribute

The frozen ground was hard as stone

Үсіген жер тастай қатты болды.

adverbial modifier of


time

When dressed, I sat a long time by the window

Киенген соң, мен терезенің жанында ұзақ уақыт отырдым

condition

Nobody spoke unless spoken to

Егер біреу сөйлеспегенше, ешкім сөйлеспейді.

comparison

For a moment the friends stood as if turned to stone

Достар сәл уақыт тасқа айналңандай тұрды.

concession

He is well spoken though not well known by everybody in the country

Бәрі мемлекетте оны білмесе де, ол туралы жақсы айтады

predicative

The inner gate was locked

Ішкі қақпа жабық болды.

Complex object

She found me unaltered

Ол мен өзгермедім деп тапты.


Ex. 8. State the function of the Participle II. Translate into Kazakh.

1. Stirred by the beauty of the twilight, he strolled away from the hotel. 2. All the country near him was broken and wooded. 3. For a moment the trio stood as if turned to stone. 4. Through the dark hall, guarded by a large black stove ... I followed her into the saloon. 5. If left to myself, I should infallibly have this chance slip. 6. He spoke when spoken to, politely and without much relevance. 7. He cast upon her one more look, and was gone. 8. Miss Brodrick, though not personally well known in the country, had been spoken well of by all men. 9. Prepared, then for any consequences, I formed a project. 10. Thus absorbed, he would sit for hors defying interruption. 11. As directed, I took the lead, almost happily. 12. He looked at her for a moment as though amazed at her friendliness. 13. Fancy a married woman doomed to live on from day to day without one single quarrel with her husband. 14. He bowed low when presented to Dinny. 15. Displeased and uncertain Brande gazed from his son to the Spanish gardener.


Ex. 9. Translate into English. State the function of the Participle II.

1. Мен оның басын сырланған әйнектен көрдім. 2. Егер Майкті сұраса, мұғалім оған жаман баға қояды деп қорықты. 3. Оны тапқанда, Джейн бақшада өзінің мысығымен болғанын айтты.4.Оның киімі төбелесте жыртылған болып көрінді. 5. Ол бөлмеге кіруге тырысты, бірақ есік бекітулі болды. 6. Оның ойыншығы сынық болсада, оған өте маңызды болды. 7.Ол менің сәл өзгергенімді көрді. 8. Ол қайғылы болса да, біздің көзімізше жылаған жок. 9. Оны сұрағанда, ол әрқашан да шындықты айтты. 10. Бұл өте жаман құпия болды, егер ашылса, барлығы оны жек көруші еді. 11.Оның жүрегі жарақатанса да, абыржыған жоқ. 12. Оған оның сөздері үлкен әсер етті. 13. Мұнды болса да, ол өзінің қызы туралы ойлауды тоқтатқан жоқ. 14. Одан сұрай бастағанда, ол бұған үрейленді. 15. Оның барлық достары жарақатталған немесе өлген болды.


The Objective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case.

The Subjective Participial Construction is a construction in which the participle (mostly Participle I) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case, which is the subject of the sentence. The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence: one of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate.



Objective Participial Construction

Subjective Participial Construction

I want smb doing smth

I expect smb doing smth

I know smb doing smth

I like smb doing smth

I saw smb doing smth

I heard smb doing smth

I noticed smb doing smth

I felt smb doing smth


Smb was expected doing smth

Smb was known doing smth
Smb was seen doing smth

Smb was heard doing smth

Smb was noticed doing smth

Smb was felt doing smth




Ex. 10. Point out the Objective and the Subjective Participial Constructions.

1. In the midday quiet of the bush she heard a small bird singing. 2. The taxi could be seen waiting outside. 3. His face clouded when he heard his name spoken. 4. She had the drawing-room redecorated. 5. All the while she felt her heart beating with these thoughts. The darkness found Mr. and Mrs. Plornish knocking at his door. 7. Somewhere a long way off a telephone bell rang and a voice could be heard speaking. 8. For their New Year’s Eve party she had all the furniture moved out of the parlor and sitting room. 9. Get your things packed. 10. Temple heard the woman fumbling at the wall. 11. The two men were heard descending. 12. Two days later she heard sleigh bells coming up the drive. 13. They wanted the committee convened over the week-end. 14. She had her bed moved to the corner of the porch. 15. Mary could feel Elizabeth reviewing their hopes and dreams, their relationship as sisters. 16. She averted her eyes each time she found herself being stared at. 17. The din in the entrance hall continued, and more vehicles could be heard arriving at the door. 18. She heard the musicians tuning up in the back parlor.



Ex. 11. Translate into English using the Objective and the Subjective Participial Constructions.

1. Жазғы тыныш түн болды. Біз бақшада отырдық және ағаштардың артында ай ақырын шығып бара жатқанын бақыладық.2. Біз біреу алыста өлең айтып жатқанын естідік. 3. Бала кезімде мен шешем бұл өленді жиі айтқанын естідім. 4. Біздің көршіміздің баласы бақшадағы жолмен келе жатқанын көрдік. 5. Біз оны көптеген жылдар бойы көрген жоқпыз, бірақ оны ата-анасының үйінде жиі аталатынын естідік. 6. Жарты сағаттан кейін Лаврецкий бақшадағы қақпаның алдын да тұрды.. Ол оның жабық тұрғанын тапты да шарбақтын үстінен секіруге мәжбүр болды. 7. Оның тез тұрғаны естілді. 8. Шіркеуге жақындағанда, ол халықтын тарап жатқанын көрді. 9. Мен сіздің кемеге отырғанызды көрдім. 10. Кісілер қалтарыспен жүгергені көрінді.




Objective Participial Construction

To have smth done

I must have my watch repaired

Have you had your watch repaired?

When did you have your watch repaired?



Ex. 12. Translate into English using the verb to have or to get followed by Objective Participial Constructions.

1. Мен өзімнің қысқы пальтемді қайта тіктім. 2. Сенбі күні тәңертен оған бетіне массаж істеді. 3. Өте аз адам суретке түспейді. 4. Ол өзінің дауысын таспаға жазғысы келмейді. 5. Ол өзі үшін барлығын басқалары істегеніне әдеттенді. 6. Мен өзімнің бұйрықтарын нақ орындалғанын қалаймын. 7. Оған шашын қию керек. 8. Менің шашымды тарағанла, мен жек көремін. 9. Мен сіздің таксиңізді есіктің жанында күткіземін. 10. Бұл кілемді еденге төсе. 11. Маған мына ботинкені жөндеуім керек. 12. Баламды музыкаға үретемін. 13. Оларға түскі ас әкеледі. 14. Еленаға инені сабақтап берді, өйткені оның жанары әлсіреп барады.


The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construc­tion in which the participle stands in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case; the noun or pronoun is not the subject of the sentence.


Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions

 

adverbial modifier of

cause

The day being piercing cold, he had no desire to go out

Күн ызғарлы суық болғандықтан, оның шығуға мүддей болған жоқ.

 

Time

His story told, he felt at ease

Оның оқиғасы айтылған соң, ол жеңілдік сезінді.

 

Attendant circumstances

Sir Henry was deep in his papers, his long white hands moving nervously

Сэр Генри өз қағаздарына жүктелді, оның ұзын ақ қолдары күйгелек қозғалды.

 

She stood silent, her lips pressed together

Ол ерінің қатты қысып, үндемей тұрды

 

condition

Time permitting, we shall go for a walk

Уақыт болса, біз серуендеуге шығамыз.




The Prepositional Absolute Participial Constructions




Attendant circumstances

She ran around the desk, with Tom running after her

Ол партаны айнала жүгірді, ал Том оның артынан жүгірді




Nominative Absolute Construction







time

The concert over, the lottery came next

Концерт біткен соң, лоторея келді.




Attendant circumstances

He sat down quickly, his face in his hands.

Ол тез отырды, колдарымен бетің ұстады.




The Prepositional Absolute Construction




Attendant circumstances

She sat staring into the fire, with the sock on her knee.

Ол отқа тесіліп қарап отырды, ал нәскиі тізесінде болды.




 



















 


Ex. 13. Point out the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction. State what kind of adverbial modifier it expresses. Translate into Kazakh.

1. The next morning, it being Sunday, the all went to church. 2. This being understood, the conference was over. 3. All the necessary preparation having been made with utmost secrecy, the army launched at attack. 4. They went down the stairs together, Aileen lingering behind a little. 5. She stood listlessly, her head drooping upon her breast. 6. Weather permitting, we shall start tomorrow. 7. And the wind having dropped, they set out to walk. 8. The resistance being very high, the current in the circuit was very low. 9. The fifth of June arriving, they departed. 10. We walked very slowly home, Agnes and I admiring the moonlight, and Mr. Wickfield scarcely rising his eyes from the ground. 11. Clyde sat up, his eyes fixed not on anything here but rather on the distant scene at the lake. 12. She hurried along, heels crunching in the packed snow. 13. About eleven o’clock, the snow having thawed, and the day being finer and a little warmer than the previous one, he went out again. 14. The vessel being pretty deep in the water and the weather being calm, there was but little motion. 15. The speaker faced the audience, his hands raised for silence. 16. There being no chance of escape, the thief was arrested on the spot. 17. He heard the bathers coming up the sandy road, their voices ringing through the quiet. 18. His directions to the porter finished, he came up to his niece. 19. Any moving object can do work, the quantity of kinetic energy depending on its mass and velocity. 20. She rose from the bed and removed her coat and stood motionless, her head bent, her hands clasped before her.


Ex. 14. Point out the Absolute Constructions. State what kind of adverbial modifier they express. Translate into Kazakh.

1. Mrs. Maylie being fatigued, they returned more slowly home. 2. In the afternoon, with the wind from the south, the big canoes had come drifting across the waters. 3. Dinner being over, Bathsheba, for want of a better companion, had asked Liddy to come and sit with her. 4. Now he sat down in an armchair opposite Charlie, sat bolt upright, with his hands on his knees, and looked hard at Charlie. 5. Abraham too looked well, his cheeks filled out, his eyes cheerful. 6. Then, with her beating fast heart, she went up and rang the bell. 7. She sat on the steps, with her bare arms crossed upon her knees. 8. Mr. Pickwick’s mouth and chin having been hastily enveloped in a large shawl, his hat having been put on his head and his great coat thrown over his arm, he replied in the affirmative. 9. With the watch in her hand she lifted her head and looked directly at him, her eyes calm and empty as two holes. 10. He stood shamefully hesitating, the strength of his resolution exhausted in his words. 11. With Lowell closely watching, he slowly removed a paper and spread it carefully on his desk. 12. The door of the opposite parlor being then opened, I heard some voices. 13. Catherine looked at me all the time, her eyes happy. 14. I admired her, with love dead as stone. 15. They lived the life of normal suburban children, school and holidays passing in a gentle rhythm. 16. The first bustle of installation over, time hung heavy on his hands. 17. The child on the bed, its eyes shut, flushed and sweating, breathing in short, whistling gasps.18. Now this Miss Barbary was extremely close … for a female; females being generally rather given to conversation. 18. Frank came back into the room. He stood in the entrance, his hand on the floor.


Ex. 15. Translate into English using Absolute Constructions.

1. Өте жылы болғандықтан, балалар ашық ауада ұйықтады. 2. Дайындылық аяқталған соң, балалар сапарға шықты. 3. Кеме Ақ теңіздің жағасымен ақырынғана жүзді; жүздеген құстар оның үстінде айналды. 4. Аспанда ешбір жұлдыз болмағандықтан, өте қаранғы болды. 5. Күн батқан соң, туристер от жақты. 6. Салтанатты отырыс яақталған соң, концерт басталды. 7. Вумич майырдың (mayor) бөлмесіне үндемей кірді, біз оның артынан жүрдік. 8. Бекіністе басқа дәрігер болмағандықтан, мені полктын шаштаразшысы емдеді. 9. Бір сағаттан кейін Павел Петрович шеберлі түрде бинт байлаған аяғымен төсекте жатты. 10. Арман менің бөлмеме кіргенде, мен көзімді төбеге қаратып, диванның үстінде жаттым.




Tests for self-control (The Participle)
1. Use the appropriate non-finite form of the verb in brackets:

While (to eat) and (to drink) they talked loudly in order that all present might hear what they said.

eaten and drunk

to be eating and drinking

having eaten and having drunk

eating and drinking

being eaten and drunk
2. Choose the correct form of the Participle:

… the room, she saw her brother there.

Having been entered

Have entered

Entering

Being entered

Entered
3. Define the type of the verbal and its form:

Having been discussed long ago, the thesis ought to be read by the members of the chair again.


  1. Participle / perfect/ passive

  2. Participle / indefinite/ active

  3. Participle/ indefinite/ passive

  4. Participle/ perfect/ active

  5. Gerund/ indefinite/ active

4. Insert the appropriate form of Participle:

They were, indeed, old friends, ___ at school together. (to be)


  1. having been

  2. been

  3. being

  4. have been

  5. be

5. Insert the appropriate form of Participle:

Maxim stooped, and picked up a ___ petal from the ground and gave it to me. (to fall)

a) falling

b) fallen

c) fell


d) having fallen

e) being fallen


6. State the function of the participle:

We admired the stars twinkling in the sky.

a) adverbial modifier of manner

b) object

c) subject

d) attribute

e) parenthesis
7. State the function of the Participle:

All his words and actions were terrifying.



  1. adverbial modifier of condition

  2. attribute

  3. predicative

  4. parenthesis

e) predicate
8. State the function of the Participle:

Not having seen my friend yesterday, I could not let her know about the concert.

a) adverbial modifier of time

b) adverbial modifier of manner

c) adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances

d) adverbial modifier of cause

e) adverbial modifier of concession
9. State the function of the Participle:

Donna Carlotta covered her face with her hand, as if swooning.

a) adverbial modifier of condition


  1. adverbial modifier of purpose

  2. adverbial modifier of comparison

  3. adverbial modifier of time

e) adverbial modifier of cause
10. Insert the correct conjunction preceding the verbal:

John will speak for hours, . . . interrupted.

a) if

b) when


c) as if

d) after


e) unless
11. State the function of the Participle:

Her spirit, though crushed, was not broken.



  1. adverbial modifier of concession

  2. adverbial modifier of condition

  3. adverbial modifier of comparison

  4. adverbial modifier of time

e) adverbial modifier of cause
12. State the function of the Participle:

A warm sun poured though the curtained windows of Berthe’s kitchen

a) attribute

b) adverbial modifier of purpose

c) adverbial modifier of comparison

d) adverbial modifier of time

e) subject
13. Point out the function of the participle:

Being very tired with his walk, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles

a) parenthesis

b) subject

c) adverbial modifier of time

d) adverbial modifier of cause

e) adverbial modifier of manner
14. Complete the sentence:

I was so busy last week. I even did not have enough time to go to the barber’s. But yesterday I, at last, managed to go there and I … .

a) cutting my hair


  1. had cut my hair

  2. had my hair cut

  3. having cut my hair

e) had my hair cutted
15. Name the construction: Paul felt his heart lifting as at a great victory.

a) the Objective Participial Construction

b) the Subjective Participial Construction

c) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

d) the Nominative Absolute Construction

e) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction


16. Define the type of the Participial Construction:

She had all the furniture moved out of the parlor.

a) the Objective Participial Construction

b) the Subjective Participial Construction

c) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

d) the Nominative Absolute Construction

e) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction
17. Define the construction:

At last the waiter was seen carrying a tray laden with glasses of beer.

a) The Prepositional Absolute Participial construction

b) The Nominative Absolute Participial construction

c) The Prepositional Absolute construction

d) The Subjective Participial construction

e) The Objective Participial construction
18. Name the construction:

Willi stood in the rain, his hair plastered down wetly.

a) the Objective Participial Construction

b) the Subjective Participial Construction

c) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

d) the Nominative Absolute Construction

e) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction
19. Name the construction:

This duty completed, he had three months’ leave.

a) the Objective Participial Construction

b) the Subjective Participial Construction

c) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

d) the Nominative Absolute Construction

e) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction


20. Define the type of the Participial Construction:

With the sweater in her hand, she stopped.

a) the Prepositional Absolute Construction

b) the Subjective Participial Construction

c) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

d) the Nominative Absolute Construction

e) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction


21. Name the construction:

Willi stroked her dark braids, his heart swelling with love and pride of possessing.

a) the Objective Participial Construction

b) the Subjective Participial Construction

c) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

d)the Nominative Absolute Construction

e) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction
22. State the construction and its function in the sentence:

Dinner over, we went home.

a) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction, adverbial modifier of cause

b) the Nominative Absolute Construction, adverbial modifier of condition

c) the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction, adverbial modifier of time.

d) the Nominative Absolute Construction, adverbial modifier of time.

e) the Nominative Absolute Construction, adverbial modifier of concession.


23. State the function of the Participial Construction:

He stared down at Baumer, with his mouth gaping open.



  1. adverbial modifier of concession

  2. adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances

  3. adverbial modifier of comparison

  4. adverbial modifier of time

  5. adverbial modifier of cause

24. State the function of the Participial Construction:



Time permitting; I shall come to see you.

a) adverbial modifier of concession



  1. adverbial modifier of condition

  2. adverbial modifier of comparison

  3. adverbial modifier of time

  4. adverbial modifier of cause

25. Define the function of the construction:



The water being too hot for him to get into the bath at once, he took down from the shelf his copy of Suetonius.

a) adverbial modifier of condition

b) adverbial modifier of purpose

c) ) adverbial modifier of comparison

d) adverbial modifier of time

e) adverbial modifier of cause





Part ii. the gerund
Part iii the infinitive

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