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APPENDIX – 2 PUNCTUATION – ПУНКТУАЦИЯ
A. Full stop (.), question mark (?) and exclamation mark (!) A sentence ends with one of these punctuation marks.
Full stop:It‟s cold today.
The office was closed. Please be careful.
Question mark:Who‟s that?
Did you see the show?
Could you wait, please?
Exclamation mark: Oh, no! I don‟t believe it!
* In the US a full stop is called a “period”.
We can use a semi-colon between two separate statement which are linked in meaning.
Melanie is a very kind person; she visits David in hospital every day.
We could also use a full stop here.
We can use a colon before an explanation or before a list.
Vicky felt nervous: she hated the dark. There wasn‟t much in the fridge: a couple of sausages, some butter, and half a bottle of milk. Dash (-)
A dash is rather informal. It is sometimes used instead of a colon or a semi-colon.
I‟m having a great time – there‟s lots to do here. Vicky felt nervous – she hated the dark.
E Comma (,)
We often use a comma when we link two statements with and, but or or.
Daniel was tired, and his feet were hurting. It‟s a really good camera, but I can‟t afford it. Note the two subjects in each sentence: Daniel … his feet and It … I. When there is only one subject, we do not use a comma.
Daniel sat down and took his shoes off.
We can also use a comma when a sentence has a linking word like when or although.
When the office is busy, Sarah has to work late. For commas with relative clauses.
Sometimes a comma can separate off an adverb or a phrase.
Sarah, unfortunately, has to work late. On busy days, Sarah has to work late. Here the commasseparate off on busy days and unfortunately.
The rules about commas are not very exact. In general, commas are more likely around longer phrases. With a short phrase there is often no comma. On busy days Sarah has to work late. Sometimes she was to work late.
It is less usual to separate off something at the end of the sentence.
Sarah has to work late when the office is busy. She stayed late to get the work done. We do not usually put a comma before to expressing purpose.
We also use commas in a list of more than two. The last two are linked by and, often without a comma.
I went out with Rachel, Vicky, Emma and Matthew.
F Quotation marks („‟)
We put direct speech in quotation marks.
Laura said, “You haven‟t put those shelves up yet” “I haven‟t had time / replied Trevor.
We normally use a comma to separate the direct speech from the rest of the sentence. The comma comes before the quotation mark.
Quotation marks are also called „quotes‟ or „inverted commas‟.
Double quotation marks are sometimes used. Laura said, “You haven‟t put those shelves up yet.”
We can put quotation marks around titles.
Do you watch that American comedy series called “Roseanne”? We often use quotation marks when we mention a word or phrase.
What does „punctuation‟ mean? Rap music is also called „hip hop‟.
Compound expression before a noun: an oven-ready meal
Noun formed from a phrasel verb: ready for take-off
Noun + ing form: interested in rock-climbing
Before the last word of a compound number: a hundred and twenty-six people
After some prefixes: anti-aircraft guns
The rules about hyphens are not very exact. For example, you may see a compound noun written as phonecard, phone-card or phone card. Hyphens are not very frequent in British English, and they are used even less in American English. If you are unsure, it is usually safer to write two separate words.
Apostrophe („) Look at these examples.
Today we‟re going for a drive in the country. Everyone is looking at Nick‟s car. We use an apostrophe („) in short forms, when there is a missing letter, e.g. we‟re (=we are). We also use an apostrophe with s to form the possessive of a noun, e.g. Nick‟s car. Capital letters
There are two capital letters (big letters) in this sentence.
The boss said I could leave early.
We use a capital letter at the beginning of a sentence and for the word I.