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part of an organization’s budget reserved for basic research that may chal-

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Английский язык - Технологии и инновации (1)

part of an organization’s budget reserved for basic research that may chal-
lenge the existing paradigm rather than work within it.
. Another conflict for scientists and technical employees, particularly 
those working in for-profit companies, is their desire 
… … … … … to 
others versus their employers’ desire to keep such discover-
ies confidential in order to protect their profitability. 
… … … … … is 
intended to allow both desires to be met. The purpose of the patent system is 
to stimulate scientific and technical invention by reserving the right to profit 
from a discovery for a period of years to the patent holder (which may be an 
individual or organization such as a company or university) while also mak-
ing the information from the discovery public so that others may learn from 
it. The patent holder may sell or license the right for others to use his or her 
discoveries and collect fees from them. 
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2. Read the text again and find the appropriate heading for each para-
A. how to overcome the contradiction between normal science and scientific 
B. how to keep the profitability of the invention protected 
C. how to define the normal science and scientific revolution 
D. how to solve the problem between researchers and practitioners

3.1. Choose the phrase that best completes each sentence according to the 
1. According to heliocentric theory 
the Earth rotates around the sun / the 
sun orbited the Earth / the Earth stands on three wheels.
2. A lot of scientists in the US are 
entrepreneurs / government officials / 
employees for-profit companies. 
3. Organizations want to 
share their discoveries with public / keep it priva-
te / invest more in further development.
4. The purpose of patent system is 
to make profit / to motivate innovations / 
to attract customers
5. The for-profit companies tend 
to get usable results / to work creatively / 
to stimulate technical inventions.

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